Capital guide walk UK East Yorkshire


Capital Drive

Gwendoline Hirst ©

Imagine the streets filled with the noise of sheep, cattle, pigs and geese being herded along to the markets. Jump out of the way of the carts filled with produce. Hear the voices of the vendors selling their goods, and you will have an idea of the noise and clamour of the towns and villages of the Wolds on market day. Market charters were granted during the 1100s, and in many cases tolls would be paid to the Lord of the Manor for permission to sell livestock and produce. Each village had large fields on the outskirts divided into individual strips, with the villagers deciding each year who would grow certain crops and some areas remaining fallow. Each strip was ploughed down one side and up the other, forming a ridge with furrows between the strips. Eventually the strips were joined together so that each farmer could have his own acreage and hedges planted to separate them. During the 1300s the growing of crops became more difficult as the weather became colder and wetter and many crops failed, causing starvation. This was followed by the plague and Black Death, which further depleted the population. However, by the 1500s the population was increasing and the higher ground was being used for sheep, so that the wool trade became a major industry. In the 1700s Parliament passed the Enclosures Act and the land was divided into larger fields, with the hedges and roads in much straighter lines. Cereals were now grown on a much larger scale and some of the farmers became known as the Barley Barons of the Wolds. The industrial revolution reached towns such as Driffield in the 1700s and 1800s when mills were built to process the wool and corn. Driffield in the 1800s had breweries, tanneries, foundries and corn mills, each with a tall chimney reaching into the sky. Now many of these have gone, or been put to different uses and the electronic age has brought different types of businesses, though the Wolds have remained largely agricultural.


























When following this route L means turn left;
R means turn right; + means cross roads
You may also like to use a road map or satellite navigation

This drive of approximately 70 miles takes you along the eastern edges of the Wolds to Market Weighton, returning through Driffield, the Capital of the Wolds.

Starting in Bridlington at the Scarborough Road roundabout, we take the A165 Hull road, [1] built in the 1930s to by pass Bridlington Old Town. Passing the hospital built in 1987 continue straight at the traffic lights along the A614 Driffield road and turn L along Brick Kiln Balk into BESSINGBY village. [2] This Scandinavian settlement was built near a Romano British site found at the foot of the Wolds. A manor house, right, was recorded in the 1200s and in 1765 John Hudson became lord of the manor. Bessingby Hall, in yellow brick, with two storeys and five bays, right, built in 1807 on the site of the earlier manor house, was designed by Thomas Cundy for Harrington Hudson, and the ornamental gardens were then laid out. Four cottages were demolished to make way for an orchard. The hall has recently been used as a nursing home. A brick kiln in the village supplied most of the bricks for the houses built in the 1700s. Turn L at the Keeper’s cottage, into Church Lane to see St. Magnus Church, designed by T. L. Moore as a replica of the cathedral of St. Magnus in the Orkneys, and built in 1893, north of the site of the medieval church. This had been rebuilt in 1766 after the original fell down and where, in 1825, the curate was the arctic scientist William Scoresby. The present church has a circular, decorated Norman font and there are eight tubular bells. One of the original bells has been preserved in the nave. There was a school held in a house in the village in 1638 and in 1819 one boy and five girls attended school. Return to the main street, L, and continue to the end of the Hall grounds where you pass, right, Dovecote Cottage. The square chalk and brick dovecote was built in 1670 with a weather board cupola on the roof and nesting boxes inside for the doves to lay eggs used at the manor. The original dovecote is now incorporated into the present cottage. Turn R along the rough, potholed track to the main road or turn round and return along the village street to the main road.

L to CARNABY [3] again of Scandinavian origin, with most of the village houses built in the 1700s and 1800s. As you enter the village, right, there is a balustraded wall behind which is a garden with a monument to the racehorse Jackson, which died in 1859. Bred by Henry Robinson the horse sired winners of the Derby and the Oaks. The arches leading to the grave are parts of old air raid shelters. R Rudston, then fork left to St. John the Baptist Church, of Norman origin, rebuilt in 1680. The right fork continues along a track to Carnaby Temple, built by George Strickland in the 1700s as a look out tower to the sea, where he could see his merchant ships returning, and known as the Pepper Pot because of its shape. Back to the main road and turn R. The second world war airfield on Carnaby Moor, left, was opened on March 26th 1944 as one of three emergency landing grounds in England for the RAF. The runway was 3000 yards long and 250 yards wide and lined up to Flamborough Head, allowing more than one aircraft to land at one time and equipped with FIDO Fog Investigation and Dispersal Operation. This consisted of two rows of pipelines either side of the runway, one of which was pierced with holes through which the vapour escaped. High octane petrol was fed through the pipes and this was then lit, producing clouds of smoke which dispersed the fog. When powered the lights were ready for full operation in five minutes and 250,000 gallons of petrol were used per hour. When planes were expected in fog FIDO was switched on and an extremely bright glow lit up the sky for miles around, accompanied by clouds of smoke. It was said that a newspaper could be read in Bridlington as the light was so brilliiant. The control room also had GCA Ground Control Approach to guide the planes down. From April 1944 until 1945 there were 1600 emergency landings, 250 of these using FIDO. The airfield was closed in 1946 but reopened in 1953 during the Korean War, for the advanced flying school at Driffield and again in 1958 as a Thor missile site. The final closure date was in 1963. In 1972 the land was sold to the Council and the Industrial Estate was begun. The road running along the southern edge of the runway is called Lancaster Road.

Carnaby airbase BA Education

RAF Carnaby main runway

Carnaby missile base BA Education

RAF Carnaby missile site

Continue to BURTON AGNES [4]. The name is derived from the Anglian, Burton, and Agnes, who was the second wife of Adam de Brus, Lord of the manor in 1175. The village pond, left, had a water mill in the 1200s and this was still in use in 1840. Almost opposite, right, is the entrance to Burton Agnes Hall with its imposing gatehouse. To gain access to Burton Agnes Hall and Manor house continue past the main entrance along the A614 and take the second turning to the right, Rudston Road, taking care past the Church of England village primary school, until the Hall car park on the right is reached.

Gatehouse Burton Agnes Hall BA Education

Gatehouse Burton Agnes Hall

The driveway also leads to the church. Part of the original Norman Manor house, built by Roger de Stuteville in 1173, can still be seen in the grounds, with, behind it, the water wheel built in the 1600s which would have been worked by a donkey. The red brick Hall, designed by Robert Smithson, master mason to Elizabeth 1st, was built for Sir Henry Griffith in 1598 to replace the manor house, and the property has been handed down through the family from 1173 to the present day. The ghost of the murdered Anne Griffith haunts the Hall from time to time; when dying she asked that her skull should remain within the walls of the house, but she was buried in the churchyard , and her ghost caused havoc in the house until her skull was returned. The stud was founded in 1889 by Captain T.C. Wickham Boynton who served in the 1914 - 1918 war, as commemorated on the role of service in the church.

Burton Agnes
Hall BA Education

Burton Agnes Hall

In 1956, Marcus Wickham Boynton was having his usual house party during York Races when the cook became ill. The housekeeper at Grimston Hall suggested that a 17 year old student Gwendoline Hirst could take over for the two weeks of the Ebor meeting in August focused on Tuesday the 21st and Thursday the 23rd. This was arranged and Gwendoline was given the south bedroom on the top floor in the upper turret, now called the Reading Room, with a long, dark corridor leading to it. The other staff delighted in telling the story of the ghost to the nervous young girl, but she survived to tell the story, and maintains that she never saw anything. At the end of the two weeks several members of the party came to congratulate her and she was given a tip of 10 pounds, which was a great deal of money then. Behind the old Manor House is St. Martin’s Church, approached through an arch of eight yew trees, built in 1125 and restored in the mid 1800s by Archdeacon Robert Wilberforce, son of William Wilberforce. Robert gave the East window in memory of his father and also found the original font being used as a flower bowl in the rectory garden, whereupon he gave it back to the church. The present cover was carved by Robert Thompson of Kilburn, otherwise known as the Mouse Man, as a mouse is carved on each piece made. He also made the lectern. Whilst Charlotte Bronte and her friend Ellen Nussey were staying in Boynton in 1839, they came to visit friends and probably visited the church, where Ellen’s brother had been curate. He had proposed marriage to Charlotte which she declined. The rector was Charles Henry Lutwidge, uncle of Lewis Carroll.

Spend time in the gardens, visiting the fish ponds, before entering the Hall's hidden secret the Walled gardens approached through a small arch. You are meet with a myriad of plants of every specious and colour that will keep you busy. Try your hand at the Maze, savor the smells of the scented garden. Then you will come upon the coloured gardens with their oversized board games inviting you to play, all played out of the tearing fingers of the wind and shaded from the sun.

Return to the main road, turn R and turn first L out of the village to HARPHAM [5], birthplace in AD 640 of St. John of Beverley, patron saint of the deaf and dumb, who also taught St. Bede. Turn L at the cross roads to see St. John’s Well, a stone cupola surrounded by railings.

St. John of Beverley’ Well, Harpham BA Education

St. John of Beverley’ Well Harpham

The water has never stopped flowing since St. John allegedly banged his staff on the ground here to provide water for the army of a British prince trying to escape from the Northmen. Each year the children of the village gather primroses to place on St. John’s grave in Beverley Minster. Turn round and left to see the Church of Saint John of Beverley, built in the 1300s and much restored since, most likely on the site of an earlier church. There are many tombs and monuments to the St. Quintin family, lords of the manor, and a gallery in front of the Gothic arch supporting the east wall of the tower. If you walk along the footpath beside the churchyard you reach the site of the St. Quintin family manor house, shown by earthworks in the field. The Drummer’s Well was the water supply for the manor house, and is said to be haunted by the ghost of a drummer boy named Tom Hewson, who was pushed in by a member of the St. Quintin family and drowned. His mother was a witch and she made a curse that the drummer would play the descendants to their death. The story goes that the drum is heard each time a St. Quintin is about to die. Return to the cross roads and turn L, passing, right, the four hundred year old St. Quintin Arms, which from 1846 until 1939 was the meeting place of the St. Quintin Lodge of the Independent Order of Druids. The racehorses Grangehill Girl, Joanna Keys and Cherrywood Blossom owned by the Owen family were once stabled in the village and trained by Paul Blockley.

Turn L LOWTHORPE [6] and right at the T junction to Lowthorpe. There were four watermills in use on this stretch of the beck until 1716. One of these was rebuilt in 1777 and finally demolished in 1959. Lowthorpe Lodge was built by the St. Quintins in 1840 for use as a shooting lodge on the site of Lowthorpe Hall demolished in 1826. Keep right, Ruston Parva. St. Martin’s Church, right, is surrounded by woods and is approached through iron gates, with a car park near the church.

St. Nicholas' Church Lowthorpe BA Education

St. Nicholas’ Church Lowthorpe

The woods were used during World War 1 from April 1918 as the main mooring out station for SS Zero Submarine Scouts from Howden. These were gas filled airships known as Blimps and were used for U Boat patrol, hence the term Colonel Blimp, a very conservative man, full of hot air, created by the cartoonist David Low, who lived from 1891 to 1963. Three airships were moored between the deciduous trees and were maintained by both British and American naval personnel who slept in tents round a mess hut. Bombs weighing up to 230 pounds had to be loaded into the airships before they were filled with hydrogen, and a pond with a fountain behind the Post Office was used as a landmark on their return from a mission. Occasionally one would break free and have to be retrieved and carried back by local volunteers. During the summer the landing area was described as a sea of gold, full of buttercups. The concrete base of a building can be seen next to the path. The church was originally built in 1086. It became larger and more important when Sir John de Heslerton, whose effigy is in the church, founded a college for a rector and six priests in 1333, and has been much altered since. The college was dissolved in 1548 after Henry V111 declared Roman Catholicism illegal. Remains of the ruined chancel can be seen outside the east wall. The market cross from Kilham also stands beside the wall, where it was placed when markets at Kilham were abandoned during the Black Death in the 1400s. Back to the road, turn R at the church gates and continue to the main road, passing The Elms, right. This was formerly occupied by the bailiff of the St. Quintin Estate, became a turkey farm in 1968, and is now a private house.

Turn L at the cross roads, along the by pass, constructed in 1927, passing NAFFERTON windmill, left, built in 1829. At the roundabout take the first exit left into Nafferton [7], named after the Naffers, seven springs that join to form Nafferton Beck. Galfrid de Nafferton was Prior of Bridlington in 1262. Pits filled with skeletons from some long forgotten battle were found along the old Driffield Road, right. The Star Inn was built in the 1930s and the National School, right, in 1845. On the right, at the corner, the entrance gates to Nafferton Hall, built in the 1800s, are guarded by eagles, with the Lodge to the right of them. Houses now fill the spacious grounds, but this was a girls’ boarding school 1850 to 1870 and more recently a preparatory school. A sharp left turn takes you past an old chapel, left, once a shop, now a private house. The Methodist Church and old post office are further along. After a sharp turn right you pass the village hall, right, built in 1861 by the Loyal Order of Ancient Shepherds, and rebuilt in 1946. Left is the King’s Head with a tithe barn behind it. The original centre of the village was All Saints Church on the hill, right, where Francis Orpen Morris, author of many books on wildlife was vicar from 1844 to 1854. The village stocks, lock up and pinfold were here at the junction of four roads. If you turn left along Coppergate you will reach the oldest part of the village. The Constable family owned the manor in the Middle Ages from 1200 to 1600 and built a moated manor house in the parkland on the right at the end of the village, eventually surrounded by more houses, remains of which are still visible. The parkland occupies a large area and stretches to Railway Street. Nether Hall, right, was built in the park in Victorian times. Villagers raised quite a large sum of money for Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee Fund in 1897 and after the celebrations found that there was seventeen pounds left over. A village lighting committee was formed which bought thirteen street lights for the village, a great luxury in those days. Return to the church and turn L along Priestgate, passing the mere which the owner sold to the parish council for one pound. Just before the road turns sharp right The Maltings, left, leads to the site of the water mill recorded in 1086. The old mill was rebuilt in 1840 as a five storey steam powered maltings, with a large house for the mill owner, part of which can be seen under the house at the end of the drive, over the bridge, left, with a coach house and stables, right. Rollers replaced the grindstones in 1890 and in 1966 animal feeds were being manufactured. The mill was demolished in the 1980s, but the mill wheel is still in place down the path, right.

Water wheel Nafferton BA Education

Water wheel Nafferton

A trout stream, Nafferton Beck, which fed the mill, runs from the mere and continues to the River Hull. Back to Railway Street where, after the sharp left turn, stands a row of cottages, right, known as Feoffes Cottages, built as almshouses by a charitable trust in 1861.

Almshouses Nafferton BA Education

Almshouses Nafferton

At the end of the village stood Station Mill, right, built in 1878 by Mathias Nornabell. The mill has now been demolished and replaced by houses. Opposite is the railway station and station master’s house, designed in 1846 in the distinctive style of G.J.Andrews.

Station Nafferton BA Education

The station Nafferton

Over the level crossing and along a long, straight road to WANSFORD [8], an Anglian settlement taking its name from Wandel’s Ford, with both the river Hull and the Driffield Canal skirting the edge of the village. This road was known as Elm Avenue, as it was lined both sides with Elm trees, until the great gale of 1859 blew many of them down. At one time the trees were so close together that the farmers used them as fence posts on which to nail the toppers or top rails of the fences. Fences were bought in sections called roomsteads, comprising two uprights of Larch with three or four rails between, so a saving was made if the uprights were available free of charge. There is a story that the ghost of Lady Figgins used to walk along the road to Wansford with her head in her hands, but no one knows why. She may have lived here in the 1500s as a spring behind one of the farms is named Lady Figgin’s Well. The school, right, now a private house, was originally built in 1849, rebuilt by Sir Tatton Sykes in 1877 and closed in 1966. G.E.Street was the architect for the school, the rectory next door and the church of St. Mary the Virgin built in 1868. At the consecration of the church by Archbishop William Thompson a special tea was held at the manor by Mr Nornabell.

Wansford church BA Education

St. Mary the Virgin Wansford

A chapel was on the site in 1330 in the charge of Elias de Wandesford, consecrated for christenings and weddings but not funerals, except during the Plague and the Black Death in the 1350s. Canon A. Earle was curate in 1897 and the vicar, who arrived by stagecoach in 1854, was Rev. James Davidson. Along Carr Lane, opposite the church, is Ireland Row, right, two dwellings that were once fourteen workmens’ cottages built in the late 1780s under licence from Sir Christopher Sykes, who owned the fulling mill by the river. Back on Nafferton Road, almost opposite the church, a small cottage named Fern View, with stone lintels over the windows, was the old school, used as a mission hall on Sundays before the new church was built. Further along, left, is the Methodist Chapel built in 1864, also used as a reading room and village hall. At the junction turn L onto the B1249. The Manor House, left, was built in the late 1700s. Opposite this is the stump of an elm tree, planted in 1660 to commemorate the restoration of Charles 1, but blown down in the gale of 1859. Smaller elms nearby were planted by the sisters of Sir Tatton Sykes.

Wansford lock BA Education

Wansford lock

The lock gates stand unused now after many years of active use. The River Hull flows alongside the canal, built in 1766, with ninety seven gentlemen of property backing the construction. Before the canal was built the people of Wansford were used to the sight of large sailing ships passing up and down the river carrying corn to Hull. The river, known as the Waters of Skerne, was famous for trout and grayling and anglers would come from miles around, probably finishing the day at the Trout Inn a little further along the road. The building on the canal bank is all that remains of the mills that stretched for a mile along the canal. Before the mills were built the people in the area would weave at home. Hemp was also grown for making ropes. The mills started as fulling mills for treating the cloth woven in the cottages, but eventually started weaving cloth on a large scale. In the 1790s a carpet mill was set up and run by John Boyes. Children were employed at very low wages and six houses were built on land below the bridge for the workers from orphanages. Charles and Betty Bentley came from Bradford to teach carpet making. John Boyes became bankrupt in 1816 and was lent money by the Sykes family, but had to close down in 1823. In 1833 the mill was opened again for corn grinding and bone crushing for making fertilisers, which continued until the 1920s. Beyond the manor house is a road leading to the mere which had a water mill for grinding corn, now a private house.

Turn right SKERNE over the three arched bridge built in 1812 to replace the ford. This leads over both the river and the canal to the village of Skerne [9], from the Scandinavian word Skjern meaning bright and clear, referring to the trout stream. As you enter the village the church of St. Leonard, left, can be reached through iron gates next to the bus shelter.

Skerne BA Education

St. Leonard’s church Skerne

The Norman church was larger, as the North wall has three filled in Norman arches which would have led to another aisle. In the tower is a 1600s wooden chest, used by church wardens as a bank vault when they collected rents and generally acted as bankers. On the North wall is the effigy of a Knight Templar and the grave cover of a woman and baby. After the Dissolution of the monasteries many churches fell into disrepair, but by the 1800s people were becoming religious again and benevolent land owners began to rebuild them. Charles Arkwright, son of Richard Arkwright inventor of the Spinning Jenny, owned land in Skerne in the late 1700s and restored the church in the 1800s. Continuing along the main street, the old Eagle public house, right, was originally a private house but became a licensed premises in 1822. The building has now been listed and so cannot be changed, although plans were submitted in 2006 for a restaurant and bed and breakfast accommodation.

For the short route turn R at the T junction, Driffield, passing, left, the old chapel, then left at the next junction, with the old school opposite.

For the longer route turn L Cranswick, crossing Skerne Beck, then turn R at the cross roads and over the rail crossing to HUTTON [10]. The two separate villages of Hutton and Cranswick are generally known collectively as Hutton Cranswick, but they only have one church. Turn R at the Y junction into Church Street, passing, on the right, the old vicarage, built by Lord Hotham in 1874. A new vicarage was built in 1967. The church is now called St. Peter’s, but was originally named St. Andrew’s when the Bishop of York, who came from St. Andrew’s Monastery, Hexham, sent his missionaries into East Yorkshire during the 600s to establish churches, which were all dedicated to St. Andrew.

St.Peter's church  BA Education

St Peter’s church Hutton

The original Norman font is now in the Philosophical Museum, York, having been replaced during restoration in 1876. As in many East Riding churches the chancel screen was taken out in 1723 because Archdeacon Dr. Dering decided that they were too ornate. A peal of six bells has been in place since 1950 and they played a marathon ring of nine hours in 1972. In 1975 they played 5040 changes in 2 hours 47 minutes. Continue along Church Lane then turn L, Mill Street, passing the remains of the windmill, now sail less.

L at the T junction, R to CRANSWICK [11], then another turn L at the T junction Watton Carrs brings you into the village. On the village green, right, is the Infants’ School and school house, built in 1874 at a cost of £800. Past the pond and cricket pitch is an avenue of Chestnut trees marching across the green. Next to this, right, was an earlier school, built in 1852 for £250, towards which George Hudson contributed £10 as he was in the area constructing the Hull to Bridlington railway line. The building became the church rooms in 1923 and has now been demolished. The Foresters’ Hall, left, built in 1901, is being made into flats. At one time there were two moated sites in the village, one along Southgate, right, was probably the manor house, though nothing remains now, and the other was right past the Railway Station, and was probably the grange for Meaux Abbey during the 1500s. The station, left was built in the distinctive style of G.T. Andrews in 1843. Return to the green and past the Methodist Chapel, left, built in 1861, then turn L Beverley A164. Burn Butts Farm used to be the training ground for the bowmen of the village. During the late 1800s Henry Moore lived here, a distinguished breeder of Hackney horses, the most famous of which was Rufus. This area is named Hutton Cranswick and before the industrial estate there was a fighter airfield within 12 Group which stretched across both sides of the Bridlington to Beverley road and reached the outskirts of Watton. The airfield was opened in January 1942 and had two T2 hangars in the North East corner and three concrete runways, with the dispersed sites and accommodation huts near Watton. The control tower is now a dwelling, but one T2 hangar is still used on the industrial estate. This, like many northern airfields, was used for training and rest after being on the front line, they also flew patrols along the coast to deter intruders. Many squadrons came for a short time, 610 Squadron being the first. The next was Spitfire Squadron 19, then 308 (City of Kracow) Squadron, one of several Polish squadrons to be stationed here. They were trying out experimental steel mesh runways that were eventually used in Normandy.

Continue along the Beverley road and enter WATTON [12], from the Saxon Wetadun, wet town, as the area was marshland. Turn L Watton, then L again, Tophill Low Pumping Station, to St. Mary’s church, left, with a millstone just inside the gate, right. Built in Tudor red brick inset with some older stone Mass dials, used before clocks to tell the service times. Near the round font is the tombstone of William de Malton, prior of Watton in 1279, found in the priory church and moved here in 1932. Eight Harrington’s patent tubular bells replaced the old bells in 1891, with new ropes in 1987. The wooden Rood screen is early 1700s, saved by Sarah Bethell in1723 when Archdeacon Dr. Heneage Dering ordered the removal of thirty screens not in keeping with the Gothic architecture. Each side of the altar are monuments to Hugh Bethell and Sarah Bethell, 1730, daughter and heiress of William Dickinson of Watton Abbey. The East window is dedicated to the memory of Flight Lieutenant Pexton of Watton Abbey, who, on July 30th 1943, with four crew members failed to return from a flight over Hamburg. On the south wall is a priest door and a piscina, for washing communion vessels, with a drain hole for the water to run into consecrated ground in the churchyard. The nave roof has a lattice of moulded, coloured beams decorated with bosses. Northeast of the churchyard mounds show the site of Watton Priory, founded in 1148 by Eustace Fitzjohn and his wife Alice. This was given to St. Gilbert of Sempringham as a Gilbertian house for 70 brothers and 140 nuns in adjoining communities, but strictly separated. The canons worked as shepherds in the grange and the nuns as woolspinners and dressmakers. Excavations in the 1890s by Mr. W. H. St. John Hope and Dr. J.C. Cox showed the site covered 42 acres, with fish ponds, a church for the nuns, divided at the centre by a wall so that during important services the nuns and canons could not see each other. The canons had an aisleless chapel for their own use. All that remains now of the priory site is the red brick barn and the prior’s lodgings, built in red brick during the 1300s, named Watton Abbey, and still used as a private residence.

Watton Abbey BA Education

Watton Abbey

The prior’s lodgings was a rectangular block three storeys high, added to in the 1600s, with three turreted towers. The north south facing towers built either side of the stream, flowing through a culvert with a barrel vaulted roof, that separated the cloisters of the nuns and canons. During the Civil Wars in the 1600s the prior’s lodgings were taken over by Royalists. Cromwellian soldiers surrounded the house and placed their guns on Bangor Barrow hill two miles away. One of the Royalist ladies took her child and jewels and hid in a room which had a secret door leading to the stream. The door was discovered by soldiers who killed the woman and child and stole the jewels. This room is now said to be haunted by a headless woman holding a child. It is easy to speculate that the door was originally used by either the nuns or canons to have illicit meetings with each other, or perhaps the prior used it for his own purposes. A high brick wall, left, hides the house and grounds. Continue along the road to Tophill Low Nature Reserve, situated on the river Hull. This is part of the water treatment works, where areas are set aside with hides to view the wildlife and more than two hundred species of birds. There is also a visitor centre. Return to the main road and cross into the other part of the village Main Street. During World War Two the southern edge of the Hutton Cranswick RAF camp and airfield was situated at the end of the village, on the right, but the remains are now screened by a high hedge and covered by a pig farm. The cinema, gymnasium and some living quarters were still standing in 1998, but have now been demolished. WAAF sites 2 and 3 were each side of the main road and the sick quarters was near the railway to the east of the village. The bomb dump was at Cawkeld chalk pit. The airfield closed in 1946. The Primitive Methodist Chapel, left, built in 1887 is now a dwelling.

Return to the main road and turn R, then R at the telephone box into KILNWICK [13]. Turn R into Tibby Lane and bear left at the end to see, right, the old vicarage, now Glebe House, and All Saints Church. The church is approached through the iron gates and up the pathway. The church has been much altered and was rebuilt in 1871. At the entrance is the original Norman carved stone doorway, with the carving of a pig’s head above the door. The Norman stone font is round with a carved rim. The Grimston family hatchments are on the wall, with a plaque to Thomas Grimston who died in 1751. Charles Grimston gave the organ in 1830 and the lighting was given by Captain Edward Luttrell Grimston Byrom in 1949. The 1600s pulpit was bought from Beverley Minster for three guineas in 1762. Continue along the road, passing the red brick wall, right, which was the boundary of the kitchen garden belonging to the hall. In 1722 Colonel Thomas Condon bought the grange belonging to Watton Priory and rebuilt and added to the buildings. This was bought in 1747 by Thomas Grimston, a descendent of Silvester Grimston, a standard bearer to William the Conqueror, and in1769 the hall was refurbished to designs by John Carr. A monument to Thomas Grimston by Henry Cheere was erected in the park in 1752. Turn R Middleton on the Wolds and see the gate piers, right, by John Carr. The hall was demolished in 1951, leaving the servants quarters and coach house.

Continue to the main cross roads passing, left, the mineral works. Turn L Beverley B1248 then turn L into LUND North Road [14], passing the mounting block and mile stone, right. Turn L onto the green, right, with All Saints Church, dedicated in 1229, left. This was given to Warter Priory in 1268 and a vicarage was built. An old poster for the East York Regiment of Militia, Beverley Buffs, 1866, was found behind a notice board in 1988 and is now in the base of the tower. The poster asked for volunteers, with each man receiving one guinea Bounty and a portion of his kit. In 1500 Lord of the Manor Edmund Thwaites built a chantry chapel, now on the north wall of the church. Tomb effigies of Edmund, who died in 1500, and his wife Joan are either side of the altar. The nave was rebuilt in 1853. In March 1954 Lund bacame Hinton St. John when Ealing Studios shot scenes for the film Lease of Life, in which Robert Donat played the parson of the local church. The film also featured Kay Walsh, Adrienne Corrie, Denholm Elliot and Reginald Beck. As in many large villages there was once a variety of tradesmen catering for the needs of the community. There is a market cross on the green, where a market was held every Thursday, and the old pump and water trough are also preserved. At one time there was also a cockpit for cock fighting, which was marked by three trees. These have now been felled, but one new tree was planted to mark the spot.

Lund BA Education

Lund Cockpit Tree

Left is the old blacksmith’s cottage, his forge has been turned into the bus shelter, but the red brick fireplace has been preserved. A red painted K2 telephone kiosk, designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott in 1926, stands near the Wellington Inn. These kiosks were made of cast iron, with small glass panes that are easily replaced. They were 9 feet 3 inches high, with a base of 3 feet 6 inches, and cost less than £40 when first made. Originally the design was for a silver box, but the post office decided they should be red. Left are the gates to the 1700s manor house, built on the site of the old hall. Right is the Methodist Chapel and school, built in 1871. Turn R, Eastgate, bear right along Damson Garth then turn L, South Avenue and continue to the Y junction.

Turn L, Beverley, noticing Brickyard cottage, left, then turn R, HOLME on the WOLDS [15] Bear left at the end of the village where a grass bridle path leads to the old churchyard and ruined remains of the Norman church of St. Peter. Most of the church was demolished in 1862, leaving only the chancel. In 1987 this was closed for services and an appeal made for money to preserve it. However, insufficient money was offered and the chancel was demolished in 1989, but the foundations are still visible, as well as four headstones to the Harland family. Norman stone carvings are now on display in Etton church. The parish of Dalton Holme dates back to 1861 when both villages were made into one parish.

Enter the estate village of SOUTH DALTON [16]. Left is St. Mary’s church built in 1861 by the third Baron Hotham, with a lych gate built in 1910. The church and tower were designed by John Longborough Pearson, the tower and spire being 200 feet, 60 metres high and visible for many miles. The East window is by Clayton and Bell and a wrought iron screen by Francis Skidmore of Coventry separates the Hotham chantry from the nave. Also note the waggoners roof. Next to the church are almshouses built in 1873.

St. Mary's church South Dalton BA Education

St. Mary’s church and almshouses South Dalton

Turn R into West End with, left, the old school house built in 1875 and right the old school. After the Pipe and Glass Inn a gated road runs through the park to Dalton Hall built in 1771 for Sir Charles Hotham, who was Groom of the Bedchamber to George the Third, and a great theatre goer. The gardens were designed in the late 1700s by Thomas Atkinson and Colen Campbell. Sir John Hotham became the Parliamentarian Governor of Hull in 1642, and on April 23rd 1642 he refused King Charles the First entry to the city as he felt that this may prejudice its security. Unfortunately this was a mistake as he was declared a traitor and he and his eldest son were executed in January 1645. After a view of the hall return to the main street and turn R.

Continue to the T junction and turn L into ETTON [17]. In the field, right, are earthworks where a Knights Hospitalers Manor house was situated in the 1200s. Left is the Light Dragoon Inn and right is the old village school, rebuilt in 1856 to house 100 children, and now used as the village hall. On the left is St. Mary’s church originally built in the 1100s with a square Norman tower. The chancel was rebuilt in 1844 and in 1867 new seats were fitted. During renovation a stone tomb effigy of Leonora Langdale was found under the floor, and is now in the chancel. Carved figures near the door were brought here from the ruined St. Peter’s at Holme on the Wolds as these are the same school of carving as the wide 1100s tower arch. There is a memorial tablet to Reverend John Lothropp, an ancestor of George Bush, baptised in the church in 1584, who emigrated to Massachusetts where he lived in the Scituate and Barnstable Plymouth Colony. He started the first Congregational church in America and was pastor from 1634 to 1653 when he died and was buried at Barnstable Mass. in 1653. A Royal coat of arms is displayed over the chancel arch. Also in the chancel is a stained glass window by Capronnier of Brussels.

St. Mary's church Etton BA Education

St. Mary’s church Etton

On the main street, left, behind the high wall, is High Hall, built by Henry Grimston in the late 1700s and enlarged in the 1800s by the Grimston family, who owned the property until 1927. Low Hall, right, was formerly a manor house built in 1672, with formal gardens and parkland. In 1815 land was transferred from the Middleton Hunt in order to found the Holderness Hunt. The kennels were moved to the stables at Low Hall in 1844, and this is now the base for the Holderness Hunt.

Continue to the B1248, turn R, Beverley, crossing the dismantled railway line between York, Market Weighton and Beverley, opened in 1865 as part of the North Eastern Railway. The station serving CHERRY BURTON and the surrounding areas was the only building hit by bombs in 1941, and was closed in 1959. The line was finally closed by Beeching in 1965. Turn R, Cherry Burton [18] known in 1289 as North Burton, changed in 1432 to Cherry Burton taking its name from the cherry orchards in the area. Built along a line of springs, the village only had piped water in 1944. Many houses have filled in wells and two pumps have been preserved. Left is the hall, rebuilt in 1772, bought in 1783 by the Burton family from Sir James Pennyman, and which remained in the family until it was sold in 1945. Cuthbert Brodrick of Hull designed a new range of buildings in the 1850s, but these were demolished in 1947. The village cricket ground was originally in the hall grounds and local man D. C. F. Burton, who was captain of Yorkshire from 1919 to 1921, would have played here.

Next to the hall is St. Michael and All Angels church. A wooden church was built here in 686 by Earl Addi, a Saxon nobleman, and was consecrated by John of Beverley. A more substantial medieval church was erected on the site in 1290, but this was then rebuilt in 1852 at a cost of £2000 with the aid of a grant from the Incorporated Society for Building Churches, given on condition that 248 seats were reserved for the poorer inhabitants. The design by Horace Jones had pews in the tower, but these were removed after a weight from the clock fell and injured someone sitting below. The carved stone pulpit is entered through a door in the chancel and the choir stalls were designed by Temple Moore and carved by James Elwell of Beverley. Stained glass windows are by Kempe, with his hallmark sheaf of corn in the corner. There are wrought iron lights with gilded coronets in the nave. Bishop Edmund Bonner, notorious for persecution and deaths in Queen Mary’s reign, became rector in 1530 after being chaplain to Cardinal Wolsey. A new extension has been built to provide a drop in centre for old and young people. The lych gate was erected in 1925 and the churchyard enlarged in 1944.

St. Michael's church South Dalton BA Education

St. Michael’s church Cherry Burton

Cherry Burton House, right, was built in 1835 on the site of the old rectory. A new rectory was built in 1877 designed by C. T. Newstead of York in Gothic style grey brick. This was used as a rectory until 1942 when it became a hostel and hospital rehabilitation centre, and is now a care centre. A new rectory was built in 1965 on Main Street. The mere, left, used to be called Highgate pond and there is an old pump further on the right. In 1890 the reading rooms were in a cottage at 2, Main Street, but in 1894 a new single storey reading room was built at 24, Main Sreet. The rooms closed in 1959 and a second storey was added to make a house. The old school, left, was built in 1822, but in 1844 it was being used as a shop, and is still the village store. School House where the headmaster would have lived is now a private house. A new school was built in 1966 and a new school house in 1967. Left is the Bay Horse Inn. The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, built in 1824, was closed in 1928 and enlarged to make the village hall.

Turn L BISHOP BURTON [19] passing, right, the grounds of Bishop Burton Hall. The village was named South Burton until the 1300s when it was changed as most of the village had been given to the Dean and Chapter of York Minster and the Archbishops of York would stay in the manor house which was there before the hall. The land surrounding the manor house was a deer park where the archbishops would spend their leisure time and the bank and ditch, used to keep the animals in, known as the Reins, is still visible. In the 1600s William Gee built a new hall, but this was gutted by fire in 1790. After this the remains of the building was divided into tenements and Richard Watt, who lived from 1751 to 1798, bought the estate in 1783. He had started as a stable boy at the village inn then became a coachdriver, and eventually bought a plantation in Jamaica and made his fortune from sugar. His grand nephew, also Richard Watt, 1786 to 1855, inherited the estate in 1812, where he bred horses and had four St. Leger winners; Altisidora, Barefoot, Memnon and Rockingham. Altisidora’s mother was Mandane, who had thirteen foals in total and died in 1826. J.F.Herring was commissioned by Richard Watt to paint the portraits of Manuella, another of his racehorses, and her son Memnon, as well as a drawing of Mandane. Most of the racehorses were trained by Tommy Sykes near Malton. Francis Watt inherited the estate in 1870 and demolished the old buildings, and a new hall, designed by George Devey, was then built in 1871 with the grounds laid out in 1893. The Hall Watts owned the estate until 1930 when it was sold. The hall was finally bought by the County Council and demolished in 1953, leaving the 1800s stable block. The Institute of Agriculture was built on the site in 1953. Continue to the A1079 and turn R, York, where there was a toll bar until 1877. One kilometre east are Killingwold Graves, an ancient burial site, and a hospital in existence in 1169 was built there for the poor. One kilometre further, on the A1035, is the remains of a shaft of a stone cross, probably marking the sanctuary limits of Beverley Minster. The inscription reads; Pray for the soul of Master William de Waltham; who may have been a canon of York Minster in the 1400s. This area has been inhabited since prehistoric times and prehistoric burial urns found in local burial mounds are in the British Museum. A Roman tesselated pavement was also found in 1721 by a farmer whilst ploughing.

Mere and cross Bishop Burton BA Education

Mere and cross Bishop Burton

Turn left along Church Side, passing the pump at the side of the mere, with a memorial cross standing nearby. All Saints Church, left, was originally built for Earl Puch and blessed by St. John of Beverley in 708. A stone church was built in the 1200s with the square tower still in place today, though the spire was demolished in the 1600s. The church was mostly rebuilt in 1820 at a cost of £1700 and in 1865 the Watt family had the interior modernised and the chancel rebuilt to designs by J. L. Pearson. There is a barrel roof and hatchments to the Gee and Hall Watt families. In his will of 1870 Francis Watt asked that the chancel had wall paintings, and the chalice brass is the second oldest in England. John Wesley is said to have preached on the village green near an elm tree that was struck by lightening in 1836 when its circumference was 48 feet. A bust of John Wesley was carved out of the tree by James Elwell of Beverley and placed in the Methodist chapel. However, this became riddled with woodworm and had to be taken out. In 1898 the vicar paid for it to be restored by the Elwells and it was put in the church. There is also a memorial plaque to 17 RAF men killed accidentally when flying at Beverley aerodrome in the 1914-1918 war.

All Saints church Bishop Burton BA Education

All Saints church Bishop Burton

South of the church was Low Hall, built in the 1750s, but demolished in 1874. The design by Lord Burlington is in the Royal British Institute of Architects. The Methodist Chapel can be seen, left, and the old school house, built in 1860, is right. The almshouses were founded in 1614 by Ralph Hansby and in 1874 William Watt left £2000 for their upkeep, the six inhabitants each receiving £20 per year plus two and a half tons of coal. Turn left onto the main road. Right is the public house now named Altisidora after the racehorse belonging to Richard Watt won the St. Leger in 1813. Sheep were at one time washed in the stream, left. The entomologist William Spence, who wrote several books on the subject, was born in the village in 1782. He was also one of the founders of Hull firm of Blundell, Spence and Co., paint manufacturers. If you like walking there is a walk through the deer park in the grounds of the Agricultural College, right.

Continue on the A1079, passing, right, after 10 kms. Arras Hill where a burial ground dated 400 BC was discovered. At least 500 bodies were buried there, including a queen with her chariot and a king with chariot and horses. Grave goods, including ornaments and everyday items, are now in the museum in Hull. Leave the bypass, built in 1991, turning R at the roundabout, and enter MARKET WEIGHTON [20]. In 43 AD this was the Roman camp of Delgovitia, near the junction at which the road from Brough, which was the fording place over the Humber, separated, one road going to York and the other to Malton. In the Doomsday book the area was referred to as Wicstun, the Anglo Saxon word for dwelling place. This was a thriving market town in the 1700s and 1800s when up to 70,000 sheep would be brought to the two beast fairs held each year. In 1778 the Market Weighton Canal was built to carry goods from the town to the river Humber. This was eleven miles long and ended at Weighton Lock, near Broomfleet, using the river Foulness for the last few miles. After the railways were built the canal became used much less for commerce and was closed for goods transport in 1900, however, six miles from the river Foulness to the Humber are still used for pleasure boats. George Hudson, the railway king, was involved in the building of the Market Weighton to York railway line in 1847, followed by lines to Selby, Beverley, Driffield and, in 1890, the line to Bridlington was opened, making Market Weighton an important rail junction. The lines were closed in the 1960s, but a footpath named the Hudson Way follows the track through Kiplingcotes to Beverley.

If you have time it is worth parking the car for a walk round the town. At the junction of Beverley Road and High Street stands the Red Lion Inn, a coaching inn, where the horses would be stabled and exchanged for new ones. Passengers from the coach would go to the inn for refreshments before continuing their journey to York. The Holderness coach was one of these and is still in use at shows. The inn is now larger than the original as two adjoining cottages have been incorporated as an extension. Continue straight into Finkle Street, probably from the Dutch for elbow shaped or curved road, once an important thoroughfare from the Green. Right is Tryste House, built in 1791 by Robert Shields, but used as a school until the 1960s and also became a guest house. The figures at the top of the lead drain pipes also appear on other listed buildings.

Tryste House BA Education

Tryste House

Next door is the Manor house built in the early 1700s and once owned by the Londesborough family. The wrought iron gate, made in 1953 to mark the queen’s coronation, hides the garden. Further along Spring Road is the War Memorial Institute, built in 1921 and the old vicarage behind a high, red brick wall, with a Victorian coach house. The head servants of the Londesborough household used to live next door during the 1700s and bodies of plague victims have been found in the garden. Turn L onto the Green, which in Victorian times was the centre of town. At that time there was a pond fed by the beck that runs under the town. This area was renovated by the Civic Trust in 1975, with a bridge and a garden to sit in. Round the Green are cottages as well as the old Court house and police station, built in 1843 and used until 1903. Next door is the old fire station, originally used as a mortuary, and still in use until 1967.

Old fire station Market Weighton BA Education

Court house and police station Market Weighton

Old fire station Market Weighton BA Education

Old fire station Market Weighton

Continuing into St. Helen’s Square you will find, right, Station Farm, built in the 1700s, which has the Londesborough coat of arms over the door. The original name would have been changed when the railway station was built behind it. The station was designed by G.T. Andrews, the architect who designed the stations for George Hudson as this was a busy railway junction.

Station farm Market Weighton BA Education

Station farm Market Weighton

The Maltings, left, built in 1875, which would have dominated the area, providing work for many people, was demolished in 1989 and flats built on the site. Continue along Church Side to reach All Saints Church, of Saxon origin, but replaced and extended during the 1200s. Some of the herringbone brickwork built duing Saxon times can still be seen. The tower used to have a wooden steeple but this was replaced by brick in 1795, with a clock added later. There would have been box pews but these have been replaced by modern oak pews by Robert Thompson of Kilburn, the mouse man; try and find the mouse. The inside was restored by Temple Moore in the 1800s, and has painted ceilings. There used to be a balcony across the base of the tower, and the font, possibly Saxon, is carved from stone. William Bradley, the Yorkshire Giant, died in 1820 and was buried in the churchyard, but it was feared that body snatchers would steal his remains so he was reburied in the church. A memorial tablet can be seen on the right of the tower arch, left. Below this is a memorial plaque to Sarah Andrews, baptised in the church in 1774. She worked as a maid at Londesborough Hall and whilst there she met General Francisco de Miranda, who was staying as a guest and they decided to be married. He took her with him to his home in Venezuela where he was in power before Latin America became independent. He was eventally deposed and when he died Sarah found herself living in poverty in a foreign country. On her death she was more or less forgotten. Then in 1981 the Venezuelans decided that she should be remembered and the Venezuelan Ambassador unveiled the plaque to her in September 1981. At the end of the right hand side aisle is a hole through the wall called a hagioscope which leads to the chancel and through which you can see the altar. Coming outside there used to be market stalls at the edge of the churchyard, but shops have now replaced these.

All Saints Church Market Weighton BA Education

All Saints church Market Weighton

Back on the wide Market Place is the Londesborough Arms, left, built in the 1700s. Known as Briggs Hotel until 1825, then the Devonshire Arms, and in 1850 Lord Londesborough changed the name once more. You can still sit in the extra large chair used by William Bradley on his visits to the hotel bar.

Londesborough Arms BA Education

Londesborough Arms

Many of the buildings on High Street and Market Place have the remains of an earlier style of architecture which has been altered over the years. Turn R. The Half Moon Inn, left, is one of several old coaching inns in the town and Providence House, left, was built in 1873, probably for a wealthy merchant, then became a Temperance Hotel, serving no alcohol for those who did not approve of the number of pubs in the town. Further along the street walk through the archway to reach the earliest surviving Wesleyan Chapel in East Yorkshire built in 1786, where John Wesley preached in 1788 at the age of 85. The building became too small for the expanding congregation and a new Methodist Chapel was built next door in 1868. William Bradley, the Yorkshire Giant, who lived in Bradley House along Linegate, right, was seven feet nine inches tall and weighed twenty seven stones. Born one of the thirteen children of the local butcher in 1787 he spent most of his adult life touring in a freak show and died in 1820 aged 33. Large footsteps in the pavement lead to the house and a plaque on the house shows how large his boots were.

William Bradley's sculpture BA Education

William Bradley’s sculpture

A new wooden life size sculpture was fashioned from a tree trunk by a Tibthorpe sculptor Malcolm Maclachlan. This was placed in the square near the house in 2008.

Before continuing your tour by car drive north west out of Market Weighton along the York road that merges with the A1079 until you see Skilfrey Park Farm on the left and you will see two red brick cottages backed by trees with a farm house and buildings to their left that is the site of the 40 acre Skelfler Park estate, where author Anne Lister (3rd April 1791 - 22 September, 1840) spent some of her childhood from 1792 being taught by the local vicar the Reverend George Skelding. Then from the age 15 this shy girl started to write her part coded diary, that later instigated the inspiration for the story based her life called "Gentleman Jack" and she subsiquently spent more of her time living in Halifax were she became known by the local people by her nickname as "Jack".

Return to the Market Place and turn L along Londesborough Road, past the church, then R into Goodmanham Road. Enter GOODMANHAM [21] under the railway bridge. Because of its elevated position on the edge of the Wolds the village was chosen in the Stone Age to be the most holy place in the kingdom of Northumbria, which stretched from the Firth of Forth to the Humber. The pagan temple dedicated to the god Woden was built near the highest point and was visited by people from all over the north of England. The ancient British trade route passed the western edge of the village and when the Romans invaded they used the same route for the Roman road from Brough to Malton. Roman soldiers may even have worshipped here. The first king of the pagan Diera tribe of Northumbria was Aella and his son Edwin became king in 625 AD. He was overlord of all the British kingdoms except Kent, so to increase his power he married Ethelburga, princess of Kent. However, she was a Christian, and when she came to live in the royal palace at Londesborough she brought her chaplain Paulinus with her. Edwin was eventually persuaded to become a Christian but his pagan high priest Coifi decided to test his powers and threw a war axe at the temple expecting it to burst into flames. When it did not erupt his followers set fire to the temple and proclaimed it a Christian site. Paulinus was given an old Roman site in York on which he built a wooden church which eventually became York Minster.

Mill House, right, stands at the entrance to the village and further on the left is a car park giving access to the Wolds Way which runs along the old railway line. Pass the Goodmanham Arms, right, and the National School, which was built in 1872 for 50 children, before which the children were taught in the church tower. Opposite the church, right, is the old rectory, built in 1823. The present church, left, was originally built in 1130 with a nave and chancel and was enlarged and renovated over the years.

Goodmanham BA Education

Goodmanham church and laying out room

A font, thought to be Saxon, was replaced in 1530 and was later found being used as a drinking trough in a farmyard and returned to the church. Water from the nearby Lady Well was used to fill it each Whitsuntide. At one time a monk lived here who rather enjoyed the company of the ladies. When he died his head was buried in the church and his body in the churchyard to keep him out of mischief. Turn L round the churchyard noting the old railway sign, right, telling you it is one mile to Market Weighton. Follow the churchyard, passing, right, the old stone hall, possibly dated 1687, and left is a door in the churchyard wall, thought to have led to a laying out room for bodies before burial.

Old Stone hall Goodmanham BA Education

Old Stone Hall Goodmanham

Turn R and go through the village to the main road, turn R Driffield then at the roundabout turn R Middleton on the Wolds.
Continue for about 12 km. when you cross the path of the Kiplingcotes Derby, the oldest flat race in England, first run in 1519 by a group of hunting gentlemen to test the fitness of their horses after the winter. At this time Henry the eighth was on the throne and it was the year that Leonardo da Vinci died. It is possible that they originally raced along a green lane from near Enthorpe House towards Kipling House in treacherous conditions over a rough track, but now the race starts near Enthorpe Station, built in 1864 for Lord Hotham. An old stone post marks the start and the race is run over a partly made up road, crossing the A163 to the finishing post a few hundred metres along the Warter road. The original winning post was stolen and a new one was erected, helped by Neil Thwaites, the corn dolly man, who always supported the race. Run on the third Thursday in March, often in snow and ice, the winner receives the interest on 360 pounds donated in the 1600s by five noblemen, including Lord Burlington, nineteen baronets and twenty five gentlemen, with the lords each giving thirty pounds and the gentlemen five pounds. Other donations since have added to the amount. The second horse receives the money collected in entry fees, often more than the winner. The first trophy was the Kiplingcotes Plate, but this disappeared, and now the Jean Farrow Memorial Trophy, commemorating the first woman to win the race in 1939, is presented to the winner. Riders must weigh ten stones and if not they collect stones from the fields and carry them in a bag or their pockets.

Continue to MIDDLETON on the WOLDS [22] passing, left, the Methodist church. Situated on top of the hill the Norman church of St. Andrew was built on the site of an older building mentioned in the Domesday Book. The long chancel was built in the 1200s and has lancet windows, seven of which have stained glass by A. Younger, completed in1981. The tower with five bells was erected in 1873 when the church was restored. The railway used to run along the northern edge of the village, with Station Road leading to it.

Next is BAINTON [23]. Turn R along South Lane following the original main road, the A163 only having been built in 1925. Near the church, right, is the old forge, now a private house. Opposite the church, left, is Hobbit House, once the shop and cafe owned by Tom Grey, who made ice cream for travellers to and from the coast. St. Andrews Church, right, was first built of wattle and daub in 699. At the entrance to the churchyard, right, is the stump of the old parish cross, originally from Castle Fields where there was a manor house and chapel. The church was rebuilt in stone in the 1100s, and the stone font from 1150 is still there, but the building was badly damaged by the Scottish army on its way to Beverley in the 1320s. When William de Brocklesby became rector in the 1330s he used much of his own money to help in the rebuilding, his wealth having been made at the court of Edward the Third, where he was a Baron of the Court of Exchequer. It is thought that his portrait is carved in stone on a corbal halfway down the north wall of the sanctuary, under the statue of St. Andrew. Over the years the church has been altered and restored, and during a storm in 1715 three metres was blown off the top of the spire. The rest was taken down in 1866 when cracks began to appear in the tower and belfry. The elaborate stone tomb on the south wall commemorates Sir Edmund de Mauley, steward to Edward the second. He died at Bannockburn in 1314 when the Scots, under Robert the Bruce, defeated the English army. Accompanied by the Earl of Gloucester, Sir John Comyn and Sir Pagan de Typtoft, Sir Edmund was in the leading division of men who charged on their horses across the wide, steep sided, water filled ditch called Bannockburn. They encountered such fierce opposition that they were killed with many of their men, and others turned and tried to recross the burn, causing the death of many more who were crushed. It was said that you could walk across the burn on the backs of the dead bodies. Sir John and Sir Stephen de Mauley, brothers of Edmund were, at different times, rectors at Bainton. Their ancestor, Peter de Mauley, a squire in Patou, was given land in England by King John when he allegedly put out the eyes of Prince Arthur in battle in 1203. He married the heiress of the Fossard family and was given the manors of Bainton and Neswick. In the late 1800s a new altar frontal was made from the wedding dress belonging to the wife of the vicar, J. W. Stanbridge and a new high altar was given by Mrs. L. H. Blakeston in 1918 in memory of her husband and son. A brass tomb effigy of Roger Gudale, who was rector from 1382 to 1429, is on the floor of the chancel. He was actually buried near the south door, between the two pillars and the water stoupe or font, but the brass was moved in 1843 near to the chancel steps. A different figure may appear on the back of the brass as this is a palimsest, an older brass which has been reused. The east window was destroyed during World War two when a military aircraft, returning to base, shed its load of bombs on Neswick Park. The window was replaced in 1951. To mark the coronation of Queen Elizabeth the second in 1953 cherry trees were planted round the church wall. Further along the road, left, an AA and MU sign on the barn shows the distance to Driffield, Market Weighton and London. Early in the last century many villagers kept a cow and these were let out to feed on the grass verges until milking time, looked after by Mr. Noddle.

Continue to the main road passing the remains of the windmill, left, built in 1818. Turn R at the roundabout, Driffield, passing, left, the tea room and craft shops. This was the New Inn, a coaching inn, also used as the court house for the area. Right are the grounds of Neswick Hall, demolished when it became delapidated after being used as a billet for troops during the second world war. The Manor of Neswick was in the same family for many centuries, with much of the land in the area being owned by the Lord of the Manor. During the early 1900s Major and Mrs. Wrangham, who owned the hall, gave an annual Christmas party for the village children.

Turn left, KIRKBURN [24] then right into the village. A chariot burial was found nearby in 1987 by British Museum archeologists, dating from 300 to 200 BC, the Parisii period of Celtic Britain. One of the most complete Celtic suits of mail was draped over the yoke pole of the chariot, together with two wheels and a skeleton facing East. In another grave was a man in his early thirties, quite an old man, as most men died before they were forty. As part of the burial ritual three spears had been pushed into his chest, presumably to make sure he was dead. In the grave was a sword 70 centimetres long with the handle made of 37 pieces of iron, bronze and horn decorated with red glass. Next to the church, left, is the Primitive Methodist Chapel built in 1839 at a cost of £120, and opposite is the school and school house built in 1820 with money donated by Mary, Lady Sykes, with space for 100 children. At one time an elm tree 27 feet in circumference stood at the centre of the village, but this became so decayed that the villagers would meet for a chat and sit on the exposed roots.

Kirkburn elm monumant BA Education

Elm tree monument Kirkburn

The church of St. Mary is thought to have been built of stone in 1153, and the elaborately carved Norman doorway, chancel arch and tub shaped font are reminders of the era. Be careful of the steps down as you enter. Restored by J. L. Peason and G. E. Street in 1856 at a cost of £2000, many features were retained.

St. Mary's church Kirkburn BA Education

St. Mary’s church Kirkburn

A most unusual feature is the stone staircase with no handrail winding up round the base of the tower to reach a spiral staircase to the bell tower. Behind the altar is a carved marble reredos desiged by G. E. Street and carved by Redfern, and the more modern chancel screen is richly carved and coloured. The village narrowly missed serious damage when an aircraft returning to Driffield during World War 2 crashed into the churchyard.

As you leave the village and turn L there are two houses opposite named Battleburn, built in 1852. This was once a hamlet named Burnhouse and it is rumoured that on this site in 937 AD King Athelstan fought Anlag and the kings of Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Cumbria, and human bones have been found in the vicinity.

On the left is Driffield Airfield, named Eastburn when it was officially opened in 1918, stretching from Eastburn to Kelleythorpe. This had seven hangers and was used in World War 1 by C Flight of 33 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps, but there were no living quarters. After the war the temporary buildings were dismantled, but in 1932 the airfield was chosen as one of 14 sites in the North East for aircraft construction. Opened again in July 1936, there were five brick built C type hangers as well as RAF accommodation. In 1939 Armstrong Whitworth Whitleys from 102 Squadron were sent from the base to bomb Germany. Pilot Officer Leonard Cheshire joined his first squadron of 102 Whitley bombers here in 1940, but the Germans were so determined to wipe out the now important base that in August 1940 they dropped 169 bombs that damaged four hangers and killed 13 people, however, repairs were soon carried out and the airfield was reopened in January 1941. In 1959 the site was used to house Thor ballistic missiles and these remained until 1963. The airfield became the School of Mechanical Transport when the army took over in 1977 and renamed it Alamein Barracks, training drivers on a cross country driving circuit. As the hangers were not in use they were wind and rain proofed in 1980 and used for grain storage, but these were closed in 2003 and bought by a property developer. During the 1990s many of the houses on the other side of the road were sold off, together with some of the married quarters for officers. In 1992 the site became RAF Staxton Wold, Driffield Site, but was finally closed in 1996. The Army Cadet Force now use the guardroom, station headquarters, sick quarters and some of the single quarters, and have added mobile classrooms and an indoor firing range, but many parts of the camp are now rather run down.

Behind the airfield is Kelleythorpe Industrial Estate which began in 1986, with roads named after local people who served at RAF Driffield. At the roundabout take the third exit, Beverley, passing the Driffield bypass, opened in 1981. Left is Driffield Showground opened on July 29th 1952, and the Rugby Union Football club, founded in 1926.

Turn L at the roundabout, DRIFFIELD {25} Just before the station Skerne Road, right, leads to Bell Mills Garden Centre next to the river, where flour ground at the mill nearby can be bought. In 1754 a paper mill was built on the site of a water mill, but was demolished in 1792 and a four storey mill with basement was built for Richard and William Porter, making textiles and carpets. By 1823 the mill was being used for paper making and flax spinning and was now owned by Richard Arkwright, son of Richard Arkwright, who invented the Spinning Jenny, then in 1826 Robert Fidler started the manufacture of paper, flour and bone meal. A fire burnt down the mill in 1949, but, once again a new six storey mill was built in 1951 for Bradshaws, flour millers, with an extension added in 1955. Return to the main road and take the next turn R to River Head.

Wharf Driffield BA Education

Wharf Warehouse Driffield

In the 1760s Richard Porter, landlord of the Blue Bell Inn, left, suggested improving the navigation of the River Hull so that larger vessels could come as far as Driffield. With the help of other traders the plans were passed and in 1770 five miles of canal were opened from Driffield to Wansford, thus making the transport af goods much easier. Turn R to the picnic area where warehouses surround the end of the canal, with granaries belonging to Mortimer and Harrison. With the end of commercial shipping in 1951 this became a recreational area and the warehouses are now converted into flats, retaining the loading doors opening onto the canal, and Driffield Beck continues its journey through the town. Old cranes at either end of the wharf serve as reminders of the industrial past. Back to the Blue Bell passing the premises of Mortimers Grain Merchants, left. To the right in Anderson Street is the now dilapidated mill built in 1862 for the manufacture of Linseed Cake for cattle feed, which had its own railway siding for loading. Despite being burnt down in 1887 the premises were rebuilt and became a sugar mill in 1947, which in 1966 was making cake decorations. Turn back to the main road and turn R along Middle Street, South, passing the railway station, right, which reached the town in 1846, and the signal box which is now a restaurant. Benjamin Fawcett, the printer, was born in Bridlington in 1808, and after serving an apprenticeship he opened a stationery shop and printers in Middle Street, where he invented a new process for colour printing using wooden blocks of Tulip wood. His business grew and in 1850 he moved to East Lodge, Eastgate South, and employed a large workforce of fifty, mostly girls. His most famous collaboration was with F.O. Morris, who lived at Nafferton where he wrote the History of British Birds, which had 360 coloured plates, and Ancestral Homes of Britain, with 240 coloured plates, mostly drawn by Alexander Francis Lydon. Fawcett died in 1893, leaving the business to his son. There is now a memorial garden on the site of his printing works. Continue along Middle Street, passing Lockwood Street, left, with many Victorian villas, and halfway along, the Masonic Lodge, left, designed by William Hawe, and purpose built for John Mortimer as the Driffield Museum of Antiquities and Geological Specimens in 1877 on a plot of land costing eighty pounds.

Masonic Lodge Driffield BA Education

Masonic Lodge Driffield

John Mortimer was a corn, seed and manure merchant with premises in Factory Lane, now Skerne Road, but his great love was excavating burial mounds in the area as well as abroad. His collection of artifacts, acquired between 1863 and 1896, consisted of 66,000 objects when he died in 1911, and these were sold to Hull City Museums in 1913. A wooden Anglican church was built in 1878 on the corner of St. John’s Road, formerly Beverley Street, whilst the parish church was being renovated. It was decided in 1898 to build a more substantial church, so the wooden building was demolished and services held at the New Market Buildings in Middle Street South. The new church was brick with internal walls lined with oak and redwood ceilings. Seating 420 on oak pews they were warmed by central heating. The building was used until the 1960s and demolished in 1969. Round the corner Arthur Foley, who lived in St. John’s Lodge, invented the modern corn drill and self binder for harvesting. On both sides of Middle Street there are archways between premises which led to courtyards and rows of houses, built when the town was expanding in the 1700 and 1800s. This can be seen at New Market Buildings, right, built in 1886, where an archway led through to the market stalls. Brook Street, right, originally housed the ropery and was called Ropery Lane where, in the 1800s, Mrs. Berriman ran a brothel. The first Baptist chapel was built at the end of King Street, right, in 1788, with baptisms in the clear beck. Adjoining this is the old Masonic Lodge. Half way along at The Cottage, right, lived Florence Hopper, writer and illustrator. In the 1600 and 1700s farmers flocked into the town with their animals on market days filling all the surrounding streets, so in 1846 the Cattle Market was established at the end of Providence Place, behind the Falcon Inn. During the great storm and flood on May 20th 1910 the beck overflowed and damaged many properties in the narrow streets between Eastgate and Middle Street, with water several feet deep. On the site now occupied by Iceland the Victoria Cinema was erected in 1912. The first post office in 1770 was in Market Place in the shop owned by John Etherington. Post was brought and sent from Malton three times a week on horseback, which became daily in 1827. John Wesley visited the town on June 23rd 1773 and preached under a tree in Market Place, however, this was blown down in 1788. In Exchange Street, right, in 1856 the Magistrates and County Court was transferred from Bainton to the Mechanics Institute, where lectures were also held for working people, with access to a library of 5000 books. The building with arched windows is now used by an estate agent. Next door but one the Congregational Chapel was built in 1802, then rebuilt in 1867, with a schoolroom in 1863. Stories were told of Susannah Goor, the owner of the Spreadeagle, on the corner of Eastgate, alleging that she was a witch, as she told fortunes. People said that when she died in 1862 she flew off on a blazing broomstick. Round the corner left is the old police station built in 1842.

Old police station BA Education

Old Police Station Driffield

Next to the beck, left, the entrance road to a car park was the site of the Assembly Rooms. These later became a Dewhirst factory which burned down. Left is the red brick Corn Exchange, built in 1841, costing £2,600, with stone pilasters at the entrance. This had a short working life as the farmers preferred to do business in the Bell Hotel, and by 1870 concerts, plays and meetings took the place of bartering for corn. The building became the Town Hall and is still used for social events.

Driffield Times building and Town Hall Driffield BA Education

Driffield Times building and Town Hall Driffield

The Driffield Times was produced at the printing works built in 1860, with the now bricked in arch leading to the yard. This is now part of the Bell Hotel. In the 1700s and 1800s the Martinmass Hirings each November brought servants and farm workers from all round the area to be hired for the coming year. This took place on Cross Hill until 1871, when girls and women were hired in the Assembly Rooms or Corn Exchange in Exchange Street. There were fairs and meetings of relatives, as well as a great deal of drinking, with the police being kept busy dealing with fights among the revellers. In the 1700s the Bell Hotel had an archway leading to rows of houses and a yard. However, in 1865 the hotel was remodelled with the entrance doorway replacing the arch, and another storey added. When the railway reached town the horse drawn Bell Bus would meet travellers at the station and take them to the hotel. The inside of the hotel still has the Dickensian feel, with bell pulls for the Ostler, Boots and Chambermaid, and doors marked Corn Merchant. Left along Mill Street and left again is Cross Hill, the market place since the 1400s, which had a pinfold to house stray animals. Left was the Poorhouse, built in 1742, which became too small and was sold to fund the building of the Police Station in 1842. The iron and brass foundry built before 1840, was one of four in the town for manufacturing agricultural implements. The County Library was built in 1939, and the Church of England school in 1854, with an infants school added in 1866. Middle Street North from the Market Place was much narrower in the 1700s, with thatched, overhanging houses which were demolished in 1865 to make the area wider, the new premises being six feet back from the road. On the corner now occupied by a bank Mr Lance built his wholesale provision merchants. This three storey building was designed by William Hawe in red brick, in the French Classical style. Further along, right, is the site of the Majestic Cinema, opened in 1912 and now occupied by several shops. Next door is the old post office, built in 1911, which was also the telephone exchange from 1929 to 1953. Set back from the road, left, is the Methodist church opened in 1880, costing £7000, with seats for 1100 people. The church was rebuilt in 1967, with 600 seats and rooms below for concerts and other activities. The landlord of the Red Lion Inn, left, wrote The Driffield Angler in 1710 in which was a poem called Snowball, about a greyhound owned by Captain Topham of Wold Newton. The inn was a meeting place at that time for greyhound owners and field sports enthusiasts. All Saints Church, built on the site of a wooden Saxon church, was originally the centre of Driffield.

All Saints church Driffield BA Education

All Saints’ church Driffield

During restoration in 1880 burn marks were found which Sir Gilbert Scott thought were probably caused when the church was burned during the Harrying of the North, or even earlier. A stone church was on the site in 1107 and parts of this building are still visible, most notably the wide nave and stone font in a goblet shape with four columns. The 112 foot tower was built in the 1400s and alterations made over the years, but by 1874 the building was in need of restoration, which started in 1879. The nave had a wagon roof and the floor was laid with oak and elm diagonal squares leading to the chancel with a floor of black and white marble. New choir stalls were topped with carved poppy heads and the oak pulpit had linen fold panelling. A grand opening ceremony was held in November 1880, with parish teas in the Corn Exchange. Before clocks were in common use the Harvest Bell would be rung in the parish church at harvest time in August. The verger would ring the bell at 5 or 6 am and again at 7pm, adding the day of the month by ringing the bell three times for the third and so on. Opposite the church is Bridge Street, probably where the markets were held in medieval times. The water in the beck was particularly pure here and was used by householders, as well as the brewery run by Mrs. Holtby, for drinking and making ale, until the 1800s. The Free Methodist Chapel, right, was built for £700 in 1864, designed by Charles E. Taylor, and was enlarged in 1889. Closed in 1960 it is now business premises. The Rev. John Earle opened a private school nearby in 1808 which ran until 1830 and is now a private house. At 62 Middle Street North, left, the new workhouse was built in 1837, with extensive buildings surrounding an exercise yard and the master’s house facing the road. The workhouse closed in 1867 and the buildings were sold for business premises.

The Master's House and Workhouse Driffield BA Education

The Master’s House and Workhouse Driffield

The house was also sold privately and remodelled with a central doorway and porch. Burnside, right, was a substantial private house owned by Mr. William Parkinson in October 1941 when he was granted renewal of the licence to run the Victoria Picture Theatre for one year. Continue to the T junction and turn R, past North End Park and gardens, right, donated to the children of Driffield in 1922 by Robert Holtby. Next to this is Moot Hill, where, in Saxon times, people gathered to hear important announcements, and where the pinfold from Cross Hill was rebuilt with a seating area in front of it. It is thought that there was a castle on Castle Hill, built around 1068, surrounded by a defensive ditch. North End windmill stood on the site of Highfield, left. At the roundabout turn R, A614 Bridlington, and follow the road to the roundabout in Bridlington.

You have reached the end of the circular drive, hopefully discovering new places on the way and seeing the beauty of the Yorkshire Wolds with the ever changing patterns and colours described by Brian Allensby as ‘Mother Nature’s Patchwork Quilt’. © GMH

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