KINGSTON UPON HULL or Hull originates from a Scandinavian word Vik meaning creek and the town was first mentioned in 1193 as Wyke on Hull then subsequently renamed Kings Town upon Hull by King Edward 1 in 1299, but no mention of a building is made. The name hull means the framework or skeleton of a ship below the masts and the old English word hulu, of Germanic origin that relates to the Dutch word huls, husk or pod and the German hülle meaning covering. Take your pick. Market town military supply port, trading hub, fishing and whaling centre, industrial metropolis has been its destination.
Situated the north bank of the Humber estuary, on land inhabited since the Neolithic period, Hull gets its first mention as a settlement in 1193 when it was called Wyke. Giving shelter from the north sea the settlement attracted seafarers, but being low lying the site did not have fresh water, however it formed part of the hamlet of Myton called Wyke, thought to be from the amalgamation of the Scandinavian word Vik meaning creek and the Saxon word Wic meaning a place or refuge. In 1293 land was acquired from Meaux abbey by King Edward to build a town and on 1st April 1299 the King granted a royal charter to allow it to be called Kings town upon Hull which latter became Kingston upon Hull. In 1440 a further charter incorporated the town and instituted local government consisting of a mayor, a sheriff and 12 aldermen. Being so close to the river and north sea a port soon evolved, developed and flourished. The export of wool and cloth and the import of wine and timber.
Earliest recorded crossing of the river was from Stoneferry, on the north bank of the Humber, being referred to as Stanfordrak in 1269 and seems to have replaced a stone floored ford. Down stream at Drypool a ferry is mentioned in 1273 providing a service from the lands of the lords of Sutton on the east to the land of Gilbert de Aton on the west. A ferry did exist in 1315 between Barton in Lincolnshire and Hull and Hessle charging tolls for the King and became known as the South Ferry. A North Ferry existed in 1353 and is mentioned in 1299, but did not survive the building of the North Bridge in the 16th century. A corporation reopened a staithe or wharf in 1675 after a petition by the people of North End area and a temporary ferry was established in 1676 form Charterhouse while the bridge was rebuilt. A Humber Ferry service was started from a small creek on the south bank of the Humber opposite Hull by Tommy Dent in 1803 from a house and shed and the ferry operation was in reality a front for the smuggling of goods such as Hollands Gin and it was this gin that inspired the subsequent naming of the area as New Holland. The area expanded rapidly and in 1826 the Yarborough Arms Public House was built and a stage coach service began in 1828. Brewhouse Wrack ferry operated in the 1800s between Groves and Wincolmlee to service the the areas cotton mills. A ferry from Garrison Pier to Blackfriargate near the mouth of the Humber existed in 1823 and existed until 1856 when the South Bridge was built. Then with the road improvement and the buying of the Magna Carta ferry in 1832 mail stage coaches began to use the New Holland ferry. The Corporation eventually purchased the lease of the Crown's tenant at Barton in 1796 for £3,000 and in 1815 it leased both ferries on new terms. A ferry service started in 1841 and using paddle steamers from 1920 between Hull and New Holland with the PS Magna Carta. The service finished in June 1981 with the opening of the Humber Bridge. New Holland Pier Station opened on the north bank on the 1st of March 1848. The company opened as Manchester, Sheffield, Lincolnshire Railway and closed as British Rail (Eastern Region) on the 24th of April 1981. Hull Victoria Pier, located near Wellington Street, opened as Hull Corporation Pier in 1849 then renamed as Hull Pier on the 15th October 1854. It closed on the 25th of June, 1981. Hull Victoria Pier Railway Station located off Welkington Street is not a railway station just a ticket office and waiting room for the Humber Ferry sailing from the adjacent Victoria Pier. They evolved from Walkington Street Lodgings in January 1849 and were purchased for £850 and moved to 7 Nelson Street to include an office and accommodation for the booking clerk, and enlarged into the adjacent building in May 1854. The offices closed on the 25th June 1981 with the withdrawal of the Ferry service with the opening of the Humber Bridge.
In 1698 the parishes of Holy Trinity and St. Mary were by Act Of Parliament allowed to manage their own Poor Relief and a Workhouse was built. The building known as Charity Hall was erected on White Friar Gate and proved to be almost useless as a Workhouse and was used as a training school and home for poor children. Next came a workhouse in Whitefriargate prior to the workhouse on Anlaby Road, west of West Park Terrace, the area was known as Myton Gate and described as a Slum area, opened in 1852 and later became the Anlaby Road Institution. After 1948 it was renamed the Western General then after demolition in 1966 it was replaced by Hull Royal Infirmary.
Skidby Windmill and museum situated of the A614 on the Beverley Road, near the village of Skidby and was built in 1821 and extended to five stories in 1870. The mill is a working four sail mill producing stone ground wholemeal flour ground between one of its three pairs of mill stones. Each sail is 4 metres (13.1 feet) in length and weighs in excess of 1.25 tonnes (1.2 tons) apiece. Between 1954 and 1966 it used electrically powered rollers to produce animal feedstuff on a commercial basis. It is set in one acre of land with its original outbuildings. The mill was sold to the local council in 1969 for £1 and it opened to public in 1974 as a working museum and is the only working mill north of the Humber.
On the 24th of March, 2015 the Danish company Siemens confirmed that they were to produce wind turbines at Alexandra Dock, Hull with a supplementary factory at Paull in East Yorkshire to manufacture the turbine blades. Green Port, Hull as it was to be known was announced in January of 2011 and Planning Permission granted in May, 2012 for the £160 million investment. The project was to produce giant 6MW wind turbines for offshore use with Associated British Ports (ABP).
Humber Bridge Ferriby Road, Hessle opened on the 24th June 1981 construction started in July 1972, is a 2,220 metre (7,280 ft) single-span suspension bridge, longest span 1,410 m (4625.9 feet) and a height of 155.5m (510.17 feet) above piers tapering from 6m (20 ft) square at the base to 4.5m x 4.75 ft (14.8 ft x 15.6 ft) at the top. The foundations go to a depth of 8m on the north side and 36m on the south side. The weight of the concrete is 480,000 tones and the steel 27,500 tonnes and length of wire of 71,00km at a diameter of .68m. The architect was Bernard Wax. It spans the estuary formed by the rivers Trent and Ouse between Barton upon Humber on the south bank and Hessle on the north bank. The construction cost was said to be £98,000,000 and by the time it opened the cost stood at £151,000,000, the present cost was said to stand at £180,243,000 despite the government writing off £150,000,000 from the arrears. It was found not to be insured in 2012/13.
University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull founded in 1927. Originally housed in the Municipal Training College buildings built between 1909 and 1913 and named after the rivers Nidd, Esk on the west of Derwent in the centre with the Wharfe on the east. University statues granted in 1954 and the University of Hull took over in the year 2000. The main campus houses the Hull York Medical School, a smaller campus in Scarborough formally the University College Scarborough offers degree courses in Arts, Business, Internet Computing, Coastal Studies and Education (QTS and PGCE).
The Yorkshire Wolds is a 79 mile (129 Km) pathway walk from Hessle in Hull north via a range of hills to Filey Brigg.
Joseph Arthur Rank the industrialist who later made and distributed motion pictures was born in at 371 Holderness road, on the A165 leading to Kingston upon Hull from the north east, on the 22nd December, 1888 and died at Sutton Manor, Sutton Scotney, Winchester, Hampshire on the 29th March, 1972 his home since 1933. His family had been flour millers in the town and a windmill they used can be seen further down the road the company instigated the use of steel rollers to replace the sandstone disks to increase production. He was educated at Leys School, Cambridge.
Phillip Arthur Larkin born August the 9th 1922 at 2 Poultney Road, Radford, Coventry Coventry and died December the 2nd 1985 and is buried at Cottingham municipal cemetery. His parents were Sydney Larkin (1884-1948) and Eva Emily Day (1886-1977). Best known for his poems he worked most of his life at the University upon Hull being the librarian at the Brynmor Jones Library from 1955. His first book of poetry was The North Ship published in 1945 followed by two novels Jill in 1946 and A Girl in Winter in 1947 followed by a second collection of poems in 1955 when he came to prominence.
After a year in lodgings he lived most of his life in Hull at a self contained flat at 32 Pearson Park before moving to 105 Newland Park, off the Cottingham road, adjacent to the University of Hull nort west of Hull in 1974 until his death in 2008. He did not marry, but had three relationships the first with Maeve Brennan, the second with Monica Jones and the third with Betty Mackereth, his secretary for 28 years.
Amy Johnson was born on the 1st of July, 1903 at 154 St. George's Road, Kinston upon Hull. The area was occupied by people associated with the sea and the fishing industry. Her father John William Johnson, a naturalised British citizen, was born on the Danish island of Fynn and was a member of the old established firm Andrew Johnson, Knudtzon and Company Limited (A.J.K), a Danish Norwegian collaboration of in fish merchants set up in 1881. Her mother Amy Hodge was the daughter of William Hodge, and grand daughter of William Hodge, a mill owner sheriff of Hull then Mayor of Hull in 1860. Amy was the eldest of four girls named Irene, Molly and Betty spanning sixteen years. Her grandfather on her father's side was Anders Jorgensen, who had migrated to England from the Danish island of Fyn in 1881.
The first family home was 154 St. George's Road, Kinston upon Hull where the family remained until about 1909 when Amy was about 6 years old when the family moved to 241 Boulevard, Hull. In about 1918 when Amy was about 8 years old they moved to 48 Alliance Avenue, Hull where they remained for 8 years until 1927. Then came 85 Park Avenue until 1931, when the family moved to Bridlington. Until she was twelve, Amy attended various small private schools one being Eversleigh House School at 557 Anlaby Road (near Glencoe Street). At the age of 12 in 1915 Amy started at Boulevard Municipal Secondary School Hull that later became Kingston High School, Hull and left at 18. This was the start of her academic career with a BA degree in Economics at Sheffield University in 1925. She then undertook a secretarial coarse at Wood's College, Spring Bank, Hull that lead to her first job in an accountants office, but she left after three months suffering from a nervous breakdown. When she was 18 in 1922 she began a relationship with a 27 year old Swiss businessman, Hans Arregger, who was living in Hull. Amy had hoped they would marry, but the relationship broke down around 1928 and Hans married another woman, but he kept Amy's 286 letters for the rest of his life. What happened next lead to Amy's aviation career. In the November, 1926 she went to Surrey Flying Services at the Endike Lane flying ground with her sister Mollie and they took a five-shilling pleasure trip flying as passengers. Amy's remark after it was that she would have liked to have been involved in some stunt flying. About this time she changed her job to work at Morison's Advertising Agency, which had its offices in a Georgian house in Albion Street, Hull, this change enthused her to think that she might like a career in adversing. So this enlightenment together with problems and disagreements with her parents lead her leave for London at the beginning of 1927 aged 23.
Life in London did not go well at first as a job in adverting did not transpire and she found herself working as a sales girl in the Peter Jones department store with no prospects. However through a family friend she obtained a secretarial post at a firm of city solicitors where se remained for two years. A move that could have lead to her becoming a solicitor had flying not intervened. Amy took flying lessons at the London Flying Club situated at the de Havilland aerodrome, Stage Lane, Enfield in 1928 and gained her pilots licence, she went on to work as ground engineer and also gained that licence in December, 1929, the first woman to do so. On the 5th May 1930 Amy set out solo from the Croydon aerodrome for her flight to Australia in a second hand biplane DH60 Gypsy Moth G-AAAH that cost £600 called Jason, the name a contraction of her father's registered business trade mark and funded by her father and Lord Wakefield. This flight failed to beat the record Bert Hinker's record 15 day flight, but did established her as the first woman to fly solo to Australia, for which she was awarded a CBE in the King's Birthday Honors list. The flight took 19 days and she landed at Derwin, Australia on Saturday the 24th of May, 1930. In 1931 Amy was the first to fly from London to Moscow in one day taking about 21 hours to fly the 1,760 miles. She then flew from Moscow to Tokyo in 10 days. A new world record was achieved in July, 1932 when she flew in a Puss Moth, G-ACAB, named Desert Cloud from London to Cape Town. Mollison was a heavy drinker and with the same aviation aims as his wife the marriage failed resulting in a divorce in 1938. An attempt in July 1933 to fly the the Atlantic non stop with her husband Jim Mollison failed when they ran out of fuel at Bridgeport, Connecticut and forced them to crash land that resulted in injuries to them both. Her last record-breaking flight, regained her Britain to South Africa record in a Percival Gull Six G-ADZO, on the 7th May 1936 in 3 days, 6 hours and 29 minutes.
Amy met Scottish aviator Jim Mollison in July, 1932 and within one week he had proposed to her and they married on the 29th of July. However Mollison's heavy drinking and their aviation interests lead to a devoice in 1938. She disappeared flying solo in poor weather whilst ferrying a Airspeed Oxford RAF plane for the Air Transport Auxiliary from Blackpool to RAF Kidlington over the Thames estuary on the 5th of January, 1941. Mystery surrounds the incident, but it may have been due to friendly fire from British antiaircraft guns who had mistaken the plane for a German war plane. A parachute was spotted by the crew of HMS Haslemere and she was recognized in the water, but disappeared before a rescue could be achieved in very bad weather. She was aged 38. She wrote books one being Sky Roads of the World and she was honoured in June 1974 with a carved Portland stone statue by local sculptor, Harry Ibbetson in her flying gear outside the former BHS store fronting a new shopping complex in Hull. Amy's trophies and souvenirs were given by her family to the Bridlington Corporation, and are now permanently on display at Sewerby Hall (the house Amy had opened in 1936).
Mrs Emily Clapham opened a dressmaking solon in Hull in 1887. Left school early to serve a dressmaking apprenticeship at Marshall and Snelgrove in Scarborough. She went into business with her husband Haigh Clapham in 1887 using their saving to purchase 1 Kingston Square. Emily was born in Cheltenham in 1856 and died 10th January 1952 aged 96. The business continued at 3 Kingston Square until 1967 run by her niece Emily Wall.
Hull Truck Theatre 50 Ferensway opened in 1971. The company was formed in 1971 by actor Mike Bradwell. John Godber became artistic Director in 1984. It was based at Spring Street in 1983 and moved to its present home 50 Ferensway, Hull on the 23rd of April 2009 as part of the St. Stephens Development.
Hull New Theatre, Kingston Square opened in 16th October, 1939 as a successor to the Hull Repertory Theatre Company that had opened in 1923 under the leadership of A. R. Whatmore using the Lecture Hall, that stood on the site of the Central Fire Station in Kingston Square, subsequently renamed the the Little Theatre. The Hull Repertory Theatre became a public limited company in 1928. In 1930 Hull Little Theatre (Hull) Limited was formed to buy the Lecture hall. The two companies were amalgamated in 1933. Then in 1939 the neighbouring Assembly Rooms were acquired and converted to become the Hull New Theatre. It is now a Grade II listed building. Moving from the back to front of the site.
Ebenezer Cobb Morley was born at 10 Garden Square, Princess Street, Hull on the 16 August 1831 and died in Richmond, Surrey on the 20 November 1924 and is buried at Barnes, London. He had moved to Barnes in London in 1858 after qualifing as a solicitor in in 1854 and had chambers as at 3 King's Bench Walk, Temple, London. Believing that the game of football should have rules he wrote to Bell's Life suggesting this and a meeting took place of twelve London and suburban clubs at the Freemason's Tavern in London on the 26 of October, 1863 and the Football Association was formed. Ebenezer drafted the first rules of Association Football at his home in Bains, Surrey and was was the first Honorary Secretary from 1863 - 1866 subsequently to then become the second President of FA from 1867 until 1874. He scored the first goal in a representative match London v. Sheffield on the 31st March, 1866.
Football in Hull began in the 1865 when Hull FC was formed by a group of ex-public schoolboys from York. It played its first game in September 1895 playing as Airlie Birds against Liversedge who they defeated in front of a crowd of 8,000 in the first season of the Northern Union Football. A number of grounds and headquarters followed until they moved to the Hull Athletic Clubs ground at the Boulevard, Hull.
The first football played in Hull was Rugby union in June 1882. The sport was dominated by Hull Kingston Rovers, a rugby league club formed in 1882, by a group of boilermakers and called Kinston Amateurs who played their first game on a piece of ground in Albert street in the autumn of 1883 before transferring to the Craven street ground in 1895. They moved to their present ground the KC Lightstream Stadium, Preston Road, Hull.
Because of the dominance of Rugby League Football Association football did not follow until 28th June 1904 when Hull City Association Football Club was founded playing friendly games before joining the football League on the 1st of September 1904 with Notts County drawing 2 - 2 at Boothferry Park in front of a crowd of 6,000, before moving to its present site the KC Stadium, West Park, Hull in 18th December, 2002.
Let us start our walk at the present TOWN HALL or Hull City Hall a Grade 2 listed building designed by a local architect Joseph Henry Hirst (1863 - 1945) in an Edwardian Braroque style and built between 1903 and 1910. It was restored in 1950 after bomb damage sustained during the second world war and subsequent alterations made in 1956 and 1989. Carved portraits of artists can be seen on the side elevations. The building has remained popular for functions such as dances, concerts, performances and ceremonies as well as bing the headquarters for the City Council with an official address of Little Queen Street it stands on the Carr lane to the south and Paragon Street to the north and has its main entrance overlooking Queen Victoria Square. The square creates a home for the bronze statue of the young Queen Victoria sculpted by the London born Henry Charles Fehr (1867 - 1940) that was unveiled by the Prince of Wales in 1903 after the death of the Queen and opens up to King Edwards street and allows continuity with the Guildhall that is situated at the end of Alfred Gilder street.
A number of buildings have been built to house the administration of the City of Hull. This is an attempt to unravel what went on. The earliest reference was in 1333 with a building that hosted business of the Corporation, a Mayor and Aldermen. A building located at the southern end of the Market Place was described as a Moot Hall, Common Hall or Guildhall and survived until the early 19th century. This Guildhall was superseded by a two story building located to the north of the first. However this building was demolished around 1800 to make way for Queen Street.
In 1822, the house of Alderman Jarratt on Lowgate was bought, it stood at the eastern end where the Guildhall now stands and was known as the Mansion House and used for judicial and administrative business. The site was cleared in 1862 to allow a new Town hall, designed by Cuthbert Brodrick, who designed Leeds Town Hall, to be built and opened in 1866.
In 1897 the town was granted city status and a larger building required, so foundations were laid on land to west of the old town hall, where the present Guildhall evolving from law courts, council chamber and offices in 1907. The Town Hall was then demolished and a new frontage built between 1913 and 1916 and designed by Sir Edwin Cooper built in Lowgate and the Guildhall name reinstated. In 1973 the Guildhall was given listed Building status Grade II. In 2004 a carillon of bells was installed.
To the south side of the square is the Ferens Art Gallery standing in Queen Victoria Street on the Princess Quay and housing a collection of art. It was built with money and land donated by Hull MP Thomas R. Ferens and opened in 1927 later restored and extended in 1991. The Gallery is built on the site of the demolished church of St. John the Evangelist that closed in 1917.
The Yorkshire Bank founded in 1860, was called Yorkshire Penny Bank up until 1959 because of the size of its minimum deposit one penny, and opened in 1901 to a design by B S Jacobs with a corner turret on Queen Victoria square at 37 - 40 Savile street now a cafe.
The Prudential Building, Hull Insurance building stood on the corner of King Edwards street until May 1941 when it was almost completely destroyed in a German bombing raid over two nights when 420 people were killed and 350 injured.
Beverley Gate is the site where King Charles I arrived with his court and found the town gates closed. and his way bared by the town Governor, Sir John Hotham on a wet St. Georges Day Saturday the 23rd of April, 1642. The Governor had taken this action on the instruction of Parliament to protect its large magazine of arms. It is said that King Charles considered this a traitorous act that culminated in the start of the English Civil War
Monument Bridge once stood at Princes Quay linking Queens Dock and Princes Dock along the line of the moat that opened for 30 and 40 minutes each hour to allow ships through causing great frustration to motorist and pedestrians. In 1930 Queens Dock was closed and filled in and in 1935 the bridge removed.
The Town Walls are recognized from the pavement brindled bricks along the dockside. Four and a half million bricks were used between 1322 and 1356 to construct the town walls most manufactured in the town tilery (brickworks). The bricks from the walls were used by some of the towns inhabitants and the void left as a space to deposit liter. The walls date from the 14th century with Edward the first on the throne of England. There were four main gates, several posterngates and thirty towers on the west bank to protect the harbour of the river Hull. The castle was not constructed until the 16th century with two blockhouses joined by a curtain wall to the bastion Citadel in the 17th century. The Citadel was demolished to make way for shipbuilding in the 1860s. The town walls were demolished and replaced over 50 years with the town docks from 1700.
On the eastern side of Princes Dock street is the Trinity House Estate stretching to Trinity House lane, bounded by Posterngate to the south and Whitefriargate to the north. The estate is built on land originally owned in the 14th century by the Carmelite friars who built their friary on land in Whitefriargate. The friars take their name from the white robes they wore and their site takes its name from a combining the the colour of their robes and the Norse word gata meaning street. The estate incorporates Trinity House with origins in the 1300s originating from a religious guild that obtained a Royal Charter from King Henry VIII in 1541 and granted to a fraternity of mariners called the Guild of the Holy Trinity so they might regulate the pilotage of ships in the Kings streams. Their duties survived until passed to the Port and Harbour Authority in 1987 with the passing of the Pilotage Act.
The First World War is remembered by a Cenotaph erected at Paragon Square in 1924 designed by T. Harold Hughes. Hull does not have a public memorial that lists all the names of the fallen in the First World War. A South African War Memorial of 1907 stands in front. Hull does not have a Second World War memorial.
Princes Dock street is home to Roland House, the former Ferres Hospital almshouses built in 1922 to a design by architect John Earle, now offices. A stucco entrance gateway is the entrance to the Trinity House Academy, a school founded in 1787 for 36 boy pupils who were taught arithmetic and navigation needed for seafaring. The school relocated to George street in 1913 and caterers for 300 boys between the ages of 11 and 16. In 2008 the school was awarded specialist school status and in April 2012 converted to become and academy with maintained links to Trinity House in Hull.
There were four Defensive Gateways to the town in the walls with a fifth leading to the then public dump. In 1322 the city was granted the right to collect murage, a tax to build and repair the city walls. The the building started and within thirty years the city had a wall to the west, north and east. The gates names were North, Beverley between Queen Victoria Square and Whitefriargate, Myton in Princess Dock street, Hessle in Humber Dock street and Watergate in Humber street on the river. The walls were maintained until 1774 when the Humber Dock Company was formed and the walls were demolished. We can identify two, Posterngate at the southern end of Princes dock and Myton Gate identified as being at Warehouse No 6. The other Postern Gate is a narrow guard gate at the western end wide enough to allow one person to pass at a time and marked by red bricks in the pavement. The area is dominated by old warehouses given fancy names with little real historic relevance, beyond one built in 1831 for Joseph Pease, merchant, who established the first bank in Yorkshire at 18 High street in 1754, subsequently used as either a club or bar.
A Seamans Mission was built in 1866 by the MP Charles H. Wilson who owned a shipping line on the right hand side of Old Kirk Lane and extended to the corner of Dagger lane, between 1926 to 1927 it become known as the Mariners Church of the Good Shepherd, Parochial offices were added next door between 1868 and 1874 where ships crews could be engaged and discharged.
Carmelate House built in 1826 built as an almshouses for Trinity House is to be found further eastwards on Posterngate. Next door at 32 to 33 Posterngate is another Trinity House property Harry Lazarus Hotel used between 1870 and 1880 to feed European migrants en route to Canada and America via Liverpool. The Migrants eventually acquiring their own railway waiting room at the Paragon station in 1871 after health concerns, it was now known as The Lair.
Trinity House lane brings us to the front of Trinity House a religious guild founded in 1369 and by the 1400s it had a maritime character. It first appeared as almshouses in 1465 followed by a chapel in 1472 on land leased from the carmelite friary. Thomas Ferras bought and gave the land to Trinity House in 1621. Trinity House evolved from this and today the rents from the property go to support charitable work. This simple building on the corner of Posterngate was designed by local architect Jeremiah Hargrave and dates from between 1753 and 1759. It has a sculpture of Neptune and Britannia in the pediment over the door and houses a collection of silver plate, and a chair and gun used by Captain Cook, the explorer.
Holy Trinity church, fronts onto the Market Place, and is said to be Englands largest Anglican parish church. Its origins date back to 1285 when it was established as a chapel of ease for Hessle. It was consecrated in 1425 and became a parish church in 1661. Built of brick with traces of medieval glass it houses a large medieval font made from a single block of marble. The brick transepts date from 1300 to 1320 followed by the chancel between 1320 to 1370 and the upper stages of the crossing tower was constructed next between 1500 and 1530. Restoration was undertaken during 1841 and 1845 by H. F. Lockwood, then by Sir George Scott between 1859 and 1872 with work undertaken by F. S. Brodrick in 1906.
Cod Liver Oil was manufactured at 10 North street in 1860 by T. J. Smith, under the banner Wholesale Druggist and Cod Liver Oil Merchant. He bought 11 North street in 1880 and converted the premises into a small factory blending and refining oils. You can imagine what the smell would have been like. In 1896 his nephew T. J. Nelson Smith joined the business and it became T. J. Smith & Nephew. The initials were dropped and the firm became known as Smith and Nephew and relocated in Neptune street, Hessle road to become one of the worlds leading health care manufactures.
The golden statue of King William III, the Great Deliverer, in the Market Place is referred to locally as King Billy. The sculptor was Peter Scheemakers and was raised in 1734 to commemorate the Glorious revolution of 1688 when the protestant Dutch King, William of Orange landed at Brixham, Devon and deposed the unpopular King James II, thereby inaugurating Britains constitutional monarchy. Hull comes into the story by having been taken without bloodshed by Protestant supporters thereby allowing the Catholic governor to be removed.
The New Post Office at 4 Market Place was designed under the name of Mr J. Williams and built by W. J. Hall of Hull started on the 25th September 1875 and over the years underwent various alterations to accommodate the post office and telecommunications and replaced the premises in Whitefrairsgate that subsequently closed. The building was 50 feet wide and 80 feet high and 34 feet to 50 feet hight to Scale Lane. Built of Spinkwall stone with fluted masonry to its lower half. Entered by a massive stone carved porch with the words Postal Telegraph Office cut into the front of the third story stone with dental cornice. A massive 3 foot 6 inch wall protect the building. The telegraph department was housed in its own offices in Lowergate to allow enough room for postal department to function. Male staff used the Scale lane entrance and female staff had the privilege of using the main Market place entrance. The main post box was in Market Place with a private box in Scale Lane.
Hulls cream coloured telephone boxes originated in 1902 when Kingston Communications was formed, now called KC for short, as a municipal department of the City Council and it remains the only independent telephone network company in the UK operating from its 1960s HQ Telephone House, Carr Lane. It was privatized on the 7 May, 2007. The telephone box here is “Golden” to celebrate local boxer Luke Campbells Olympic gold medal in the 2012 games.
Turn west up South Church Side to the Old Grammar School now the Hands on History Museum. The Grammar School was built between 1583 and 1585 replacing a school endowed by Bishop Alcock in 1479. A plaque between the ground floor windows bears reference to the merchants mark of a major benefactor William Gee, a merchant in the town and the date 1583 is referenced on the one bearing the town coat of arms, three crowns. Past pupils were Andrew Marvell, poet and Hull MP, and William Wilberforce, MP The Great Emancipator. For a time the upstairs served as a Merchant Adventure Hall. The school continued until 1878 when Holy Trinity purchased the building for a mission room and choir school. Hull City bought the Old Grammar School and it opened in 1988 as a museum for social history focusing on The Story of Hull and Its People called the Hands on History Museum.
Across from King street and through the arch next to the Kings Ale House we find ourselves in Prince street an attractive Georgian street with conserved houses and shops on its north side that leads at the end to Dagger Lane where you went to buy your weapon in times past
Castle street leads from Dagger Lane into Humber Dock Street with Hull Marina on the right, formally called Humber Dock when it opened in 1803 and earlier still New Dock opening in June 1809. Myton Gate and Hessle Gate were taken down as the walls were in ruin in 1803 for the construction of the New Dock. The origins of the walls can be Identified by the brindle brick setts near the Hesssle Gate buildings, now a restaurant. The dock designed to provide berths for 70 ships was one of the first to be excavated by bucket chain steam powered dredging. Material excavated was used to form the south side of Humber street, originally edging the Humber, as well as providing spoil for the bases of Nelson street and Wellington street so named to commemorate war encounters. The fourth dock was built and opened in July 1846 to accommodate the Selby Railway that when it opened in 1840 was appropriately called Railway Dock. The dock was designed by the Dock companys consulting engineer J. B. Hartley and covered 2.75 acres. At the other side of the site stood Warehouse 13 built by Edward Walsh for the Dock Company now the building encompasses other pursuits.
The Pier Area lies to the south of Humber street on reclaimed land and houses dating from that period with The Minerva Hotel built in 1829 the probably the most notable.
The Waterguard office, now flats, on Whitefriar Gate, commemorates Grace Darling, the Longstone lighthouse keepers daughter who launched a boat to save a number of survivors from the wreck of the The Fortarshire, a topsail schooner, aided by a two-cylinder 190hp engine built in Dundee in 1836 that transported passengers and cargo between Hull and Dundee, on the rocks of the Northumberland coast on the night of 6th and 7th of September, 1838 for which she and her father William were awarded gold medals by the Royal Humane Society
Nelson street houses the former Pier Station operated by the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway Company in 1880, a Railway station without trains, although up until 1981 when the Humber Bridge opened and British Rail withdrew the ferry, you could send a parcel for dispatch on the New Holland Packet steam ferry or buy a ticket for departure from New Holland Pier.
The Pilot Office on the corner of Queen street and Nelson Street, dating from 1819, was designed by local architect John Earle junior. The building served as the headquarters of the Humber Pilot Service, that oversaw the Humber estuary until 3 am on the 23rd February, 1998, when the Humber pilots were evicted from 50 Queen street to and transferred to a muster station in a portacabin on the north side of the Albert Dock, Hull. The Humber Pilots now operated from Spurn Point at the Mouth of the Humber. The Pilot Office then became apartments on the 13th of December, 2002.
Victoria Pier or Corporation Pier is nearby with some magnificent views to the west of the Humber Bridge that opened in 1981.
A short walk will bring you east across the Hull Millennium Bridge to the The Deep aquarium situated at Sammys Point, named after Matin Samuelson, who in 1857 built a shipyard on part of the island that was site of the 16th century Hull Castle, situated in Tower Street where the River Hull meets The Humber, off Garrison Road the A63. Designed by Sir Terry Farrell The Deep was opened by the Duke of York on Saturday the 23rd of March, 2002. It consists of the tanks contain 2,500,000 liters of salt water (550,000 imp gallons) that is home to thousands of sea creatures including seven species of shark and newly arrived Gentoo penguins form the Moody Gardens Zoo in Texas, USA.
With views of Alexandra, King George, Queen Elizabeth Docks and the P & O North Sea Ferries terminal serving Belgium and Holland on the North Lincolnshire skyline. You cannot escape the fact of the North Sea approaching 20 miles away.
Your gaze is confronted by two statues one of Sir William de la Pole, first mayor of Kingston upon Hull in 1332, sculpted by W. D. Keyworth junior, the other by Steinunn Thorasrinsdottir entitled Voyage symbolizes Hulls fishing links with Iceland. Close bye is the oss wash a slop down to the Humber estuary where horses were brought to be washed in the waters in times past.
Queen street takes you to Humber street, once dedicated to the fruit and vegetable markets, but now accommodates arts and crafts interests, and gives a view of Holy Trinity church.
The Tidal Surge Barrier, designed by Shankland Cox Associates opened in 1980 provides the citys flood prevention, the pivoting barrier weighs 202 tonne and when lowered provides a dame to the Humber. To your right Humber street, marks the medieval wall, that leads to the South End, a small spit of land once accessed through a small entrance known as the Water Gate. This reclaimed land was used for shipbuilding and repair and is home for the Central Dry Dock.
The river Humber derives its name from the Anglo Saxon Humbre and Valgar Latin Humbri, although it has been recorded as Abus from the Latin verb Abdo, that means cover with shadows or black or dark river thus the connection with river.
Passing under the Myton Bridge you get access to the Old Harbour, often referred to as The Haven, where the medieval port developed until the town docks started to develop giving harbourage and refuge from the Humber estuary in the 1700s as shown by the two rugby teams.
The river marks the boundary of the old town with Drypool on the east bank of the Humber a hamlet mentioned in the Domesday Book as Dridpot. Henry VIII built a castle and two block houses in this area between 1542 and 1543 that were incorporated in the Citadel between 1681 and 1690 a divide that still separates the east from the west.
Scale Lane Staith is to your left adjacent to the pedestrian swing bridge designed by McDowell and Benedetti opened in June 2013. We now come to the Staiths, narrow cobbled streets that give access to the river to load and unload ships and barges, they were accessed via the High street, arguably Hulls most important street, and main street in the medieval town that followed the the route of the River Hull. Two pubs survive, the Lion and Key and Ye Olde Black Boy that gave a backbone to the myriad of trades, professions and businesses that existed to support life in eighteenth century. Some merchants had their houses on the High street with warehouses behind that extended to the river for easy loading of water craft with number 52 one such example of these 17th century premises. The oldest example of Hulls housing stock is in Scale lane, it is a jettying timber frame house, a technique that allows each upper floor of the house to extend out beyond the floor below, thus allowing each floor area to expand as the house gets progressively higher. Examples of other buildings along this street show how buildings have been mutilated to make alterations and update. The street has examples of other buildings such as the Dunwells Forge, the Pacific Club a meeting house for the Citys corn and seed merchants at the end of the 1800s. Further down the street gives a glance down the staith next to Mainster House, a house built for Henry Mainster after a fatal fire killed his wife, infant son and two servants, it was constructed between 1744 - 5 and being next to 41 High street will give a view of Crowle House built in 1664.
The Old Customs House, 4 Market Place, Lowgate, Hull, on the site of the old Kingston Hotel was designed by architect James Williams and started in 1875. This four story building built of Spinkwall stone displays the words Postal Telegraph Office cut into the stone over the third story surmounted by a carved foliage dental cornice. The rooms behind becoming the battery rooms and other rooms associated with the telegraphs department, store rooms and apartments for the porter and housekeeper with a retiring rooms in the rear. The front rooms on the first floor being devoted to the postmaster and his principle officials with the rear to instrument rooms, clerk's rooms and retiring rooms. This left the large room on the ground floor to become the Post Office and telegraph office subsequently becoming the chart room or long room of the Custom House until they moved out in 1970 allowing the ground floor to become a restaurant. The words The Old Customs House were later let into the stone in bronze over before the more recent left hand restaurant door was added. The main door fronts onto the lights of the pedestrian crossing traffic lights situated between Scale lane and Liberty lane and opposite the present day Lowgate sub Post Office at 63 Market Place.
The former Corn Exchange, 36 High street is opposite, behind cast iron gates made by the Joseph Wilsons Foundry in Drypool, it was built in 1857 on the site of the old customs house to a design by local architects Bellamy and Hardy of Lincoln, the stone frontage is embellished with a bearded mask above the arched front door supported by Corinthian columns. By the late 1800s the building was underused and in 1923 became the Museum of Commerce and Transport that in 1991 become the Hull and East Riding Museum.
Wilberforce House at 23 - 25 High street, Hull was built in 1660 for the Listers and occupied by the Wilberforce family between 1730 and 1832 during which time additions were made including the staircase. It was here that William, the anti slavery campaigner was born in 24th August, 1759. He was subsequently educated at Pocklington School, Yorkshire and St. Johns College, Cambridge. He married Barbara Spooner of Elmdon Hall, Solihull, Warwickshire at St. Swithins Church, Walcot, Bath on the 30th of May 1797 and they had three children William 1798, Henry, Barbara 1799, Elizabeth 1801, Robert 1802, Samuel 1805, and Henry 1807 and lived for most of their lives at 23 - 25 High street. 25 High Street was where Wilberforce lived for much of his life and now houses a 17th century exhibition of his having lived there. The house is now a museum featuring the slavery campaign. Next door is a house built for George Hamilton in 1756 and is now part of the museum. A statue by local sculpture W. D. Keyworth, junior, stands in front of the house. When Wilberforce died in 1833 a column was erected and subsequently moved to its present position in Queens gardens in 1935 leaving a bronze plaque in its original position. William Wilberforce was MP for Hull from 1780 age 21 retiring from politics in 1825 and influenced the abolition of slavery bill in parliament on the 25th March, 1807. The abolition of slavery bill was passed in parliament on the 26th July 1833 granting freedom to all slaves in the British Empire.
Street life Museum of Transport on the High Street is a purpose built museum that was opened in 1989 and houses a collection of exhibits relating to public transport including veteran cars, horse drawn carriages and include steam locomotives.
Alfred Gelder street is the backdrop to Blaydes House dating from 1760. The dry dock was to the left of the Dock Office, dating from 1820 to 1840 the original entrance to Queens Dock. HMS Bounty recommissioned in 1787 for Admiralty was originally the merchant ship called Bethia built in 1784 at the Blaydes shipyard that was nearby.
Fort Paull built for a gun battery near the village of Paull on Battery Road east of Hull dates from the Napoleonic period. The present fort was built between 1861 and 1864 as one of the Palmerston Forts after a royal Commission. The original emplacements were nineteen 64 pounders (29kg), but then Continually updated eventually housing a mining station in 1886 and searchlights in 1907. It saw service during both world wars eventually closing in 1960. In 1964 Friends of Fort Paull, volunteers, began to restore the fabric to eventually open it to the public in 2000 were it houses a collection of Military exhibits, including the last remaining Blackburn Beverley heavy transport aircraft.
Hull Maritime Museum, Queen Victoria Square, houses the towns maritime exhibits dependent on size, that allowed the towns people to go to sea. The museum was originally located in Pickering Park and known as the Museum of Fisheries and Shipping when it opened in 1912 before moving in 1974 to its present site in the Dock Offices Building of the Hull Dock Company, a company that had operated most of the docks in Hull until 1893, offices designed by London architect Christopher George Wray.
The General Post Office, situated on the corner of Market Place and Scale Lane, was built in Portland stone to a design by architect Walter Pott between 1908 - 9 in the Edwardian Imperial style and built on the site of the Suffolk Palace, the grand name for the De la Pole family manor house. The family were merchants and businessmen and William De la Pole was the towns first mayor in 1331. The building was so large it had a hall, summer hall, 18 chambers, a chapel, 2 wine cellars, a pantry, buttery, kitchen, a bake house and a roof that needed 4,000 roof tiles for its repair and upkeep. When Henry VIII gained possession of the house it was improved and fortified. It then passed through several owners after Henrys death finally being demolished in the 17th century.
St. Marys the Virgin, Hulls second oldest church stands on Lowgate and dates back to 1327 when it was mentioned in the will of William Skayle, as the Chapel of the blessed Virgin Mary, giving credence to thought that a chapel may have existed earlier. The Skayle family gave their name to Scale lane nearby. It was a chapel of ease up until 1333 when it was referred to as newly built and given a license to perform divine services and burials and became the parish church for the northern part of the Old Town. The east end of the church was rebuilt in the fourteenth century, bequests enabled a tower to be added between 1504 and 1507, only to collapse in 1518. Subsequent restorations to tower and fabric took place around 1698 with a new tower by Sir George Gilbert Scott in 1863. A clock is first mentioned in the accounts of 1452 up to which time only bells are mentioned.
Exchange Alley gives a feel of the Victorian office buildings that lined these housing alleys and courts in times past. These throughways were often only 18 to 20 feet wide, with six to ten houses on either side, making them small and susceptible to overcrowding. These houses had only one entry or exit, no internal bathroom or toilet, no running water, shared outside closets with one tap if you were lucky, conditions that lead to insanitary conditions and disease. In the first half of the 20th century these courts were classed as slums and demolished leading the way to the introduction of housing estates.
At the end of Exchange alley turn left into Cogan alley and Bowlalley Lane home to Ye OldeWhite Harte public house that gives name to the alley in which it stands. The pub has a room in it called the Plotting Parlour said to be where in 1642 the decision was made to refuse Charles I entry to the town and so start the civil war. However, architectural historians date the building from the 1660s as that facade style is more in keeping. Further research has revealed that it may have been muddled with the Town Taking of the 3rd of December, 1688 when it was the Deputy Governors house and the Plotting Chamber was used to plan the overthrow of the Catholic Governor of the Town to forestall his plot to declare Hull for King James II against William of Orange, King Billy. Take your choice. The pub has other attributes such as the late17th century staircase, panelled room with frieze and carved chimneypiece and the restoration in 1881 that added the bay windows.
Back to Silver street and right into the Land of Green Ginger. Two possible explanations exist as to how the name may have evolved, one being that ginger may have been processed in the vicinity or what is more likely, the local people who in the 17th century lived at the southern end of the street, called Sewer Lane, nicknamed the area Land of Green Ginger because a nearby stream was green and probably smelt.
The George hotel claims to have Englands smallest window, a narrow glazed slit between two large stones and marks the internal spot where the ostler awaited the arrival of the horses of the coaches on cold winter nights.
Return to Silver street.
Whitefriargate called Aldgate in medieval times when Silver street and Scale lane were inclusive. The present name is taken from the Carmelite friers who arrived in the 13th century and in 1320 built a friary on the south side of the street. The friars wore white habits and were known as the white friars. The street name means white robe, friar, gate, the Norse word for street was gata. The friary dissolved in 1539 leading to the gradual disappearance of the buildings. During building work in the 1830s human remains were found and assumed to indicate where the friary burial ground was. Three other street names survive in the old town deriving from gata, Blackfriargate named after the colour of the robes worn by friers in that area, Lowgate, Posterngate and Mytongate subsequently renamed Castle street when the road was relaid.
Smiths Bank taking numbers 1 to 9 Whitefriargate was a three story building with 29 bay windows built about 1829 and used as a bank. The bank was established in 1784 at Wilberforce House on the High Street as Smith and Thompson, the amalgamation of two banks headed by Abel Smith of Nottingham and Thomas Thompson of Hull becoming Samuel Smith, Brothers and Co. when Thompson died in 1828. Now a chemist.
The Neptune Inn 11 to 12 Whitefriargate overlooking Parliament street can just be made out by the Coat of Arms of Trinity House, in the facade over a arched Venetian window on the second floor. Trinity House built the building between 1791 and 1795 as a hotel for the use of the merchants who used Hulls first purpose built dock now Queens Gardens. The room behind the facade served as the banqueting room measuring 52 feet lang, 24 feet wide and 22 feet high. Never a success it served as the Custom House between 1815 - 1913.
By 1774 the old harbour was so congested that The Hull Dock Company was formed to try to resolve the problems. The government were insisting that any new dock must have a legal quay to collect custom duties, before this customs officials were unprotected from the crowded wharf whilst collecting duties. The Dock as it was known in 1778 was the largest inland dock in Britain, later to be known as the Old Dock when it faced competition from newly built docks, it finally becoming Queens Dock following the visit of Queen Victoria in 1854. The first ship to use the dock was the whaler Manchester. In the years between 1788 and 1792 1,522 ships used the dock whilist customs and revenue collected £200,000 in duties. Never a success because of access of the problem coursed by having to navigate a congested river. Robinson Crusoe is remembered as having sailed from Queens Dock, Hull in Daniel Defoes 1719 novel based on a real sailor Juan Fermandez who was shipwrecked and spent 41 years on an desert island. The name Crusoe is corrupted from the German name Kreutznaer. Construction of a new dock started in 1807 and it opened to shipping in 1809, it was called the Humber Dock and cost £233,000 giving direct access to the Humber. To accommodate larger vessels with direct Humber access even more docks were built. Of cause these docks needed warehouses to service their needs and so the area became surrounded by purpose built accommodation, but now only two survive on the south side of the gardens. It closed to shipping in August 1967, before closing permanently in 1969. It was later redeveloped and in 1983 opened to become part of the Marina and the dock converted to Queens Gardens. Where we see the redundant Spurn Point Light Ship moored.
The Wilberforce Monument can be seen to the east standing standing on the Hull College forecourt on Wilberforce Drive having arriving at its present site in Queens Gardens in 1935 when the 9.75 acre (4 ha) Queens Dock was filled and landscaped.
The High Street brings you back to where you started Queen Victoria Square. You may wish to linger a while before you explore more of the sights of KINGSTON UPON HULL or Hull.© BA